What is the cardiovascular system
What is the cardiovascular system? It is an organ system exists in the body. Its function is to drive oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to all the body cells and to get rid of the waste from the cells. It is mainly consisting of heart, blood vessels, and blood. As known there are some diseases that may affect each system in the body as well as cardiovascular system. There are some Serious diseases that infect this organ system such as heart failure and coronary artery disease. There are some cases that it doesn’t respond to the medications and surgeries done as an effect, it came to the end stage of the disease. In those cases doctors has no choose except the heart transplantation surgery. For that, the heart transplantation surgery is not considered as a medication but as a life-saving measure. This surgery is done by removing the patient’s diseased heart and replaces it by a healthy heart from a deceased donor. This surgery done for patients who have end-stage heart failure and that may be caused by Coronary heart disease, hereditary conditions, and viral infections of the heart, damaged heart valves and muscles. So, we can understand from the previous information that this surgery is not an easy one. As a result, the patient will be forced to do some changes in his life after undergoing in the surgery. That of course will affect his mental health. According to that, it’s important to study the psychological outcomes affecting patient after heart transplantation surgery.
The most popular psychological problem that patients face is depression. According to the studies done 63% of the patient have depression symptoms after (HTx)***. Let’s define depression as a condition of having low mood and aversion toward the activities, behaviors and thoughts that may help the person to feel better. Depression is a normal reaction after passing a difficult time, in other words it’s normal for (HTx) patients to feel in that way. There are two main strong factors effect in the occurrence of depression. First, There are a lot of requires and instructions that the patient has to follow for example, the patient has to follow a rigid diet. If the patient is underweight it is important to reach to the ideal body weight as well as if the patient has excess weight because in both conditions that will cases some extra problems *** . After that the patient has to work to stay in the same weight or close to it. In fact, the process of increasing or decreasing the weight is not easy for the healthy person so how the (HTx) patients. As a result, that is going to make pressure on the patient. Another example is that the patient has to take medication (immunosuppressive drugs ) for the rest of his life. The patient will suffer from organ rejection if he did not take immunosuppressive drugs because the immune system will not recognize the transplanted heart and it will try to reject that organ. Second, the patient’s life quality may differ after the surgery. For instance, the patient has to quit smoking especially for former smokers. That’s because “smoking is a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTx)”***. In addition, the patient con not join the crowded social gathering because there is a high risk of injury.
Another psychological problem is getting negative emotions toward the life and people. Getting angry very easily is a noticeable thing the (HTx) patients suffering from. Because of many reasons they get this negative feeling. In detail, facing lots of difficulties in daily life is a strong reason. In the first two months or some time more the patient is not allowed to drive car. In addition for that, the patient cannot left, pull or push anything heavier than ten pounds, that’s mean that the patient will not be able to do lots of activities in his daily life. That makes life hard and he may need some help so, he gets angry because he cannot do his own things. Furthermore, the patient may suffer from great pain and he will not be able to control his reaction. Another point is facing the feeling of anxiety all most the time and thinking on the affecting sides after the surgery. Organ Rejection, infections, graft coronary artery disease, cancer, high blood pressure or hypertension, and diabetes are the most dangerous affecting side of the surgery but is not necessary to have any one of them. And if the patient wants to prevent himself from all the affecting sides he has to stay calm and enjoy his time in the best way he likes.
In addition for the previous points, the patients avoid coping with people and to interact with them. Fear of death stop the patient from trying to cope with his environment. The patient may think about the future and what is going to happen to him after a period of time. The patient start thinking in death and he imagine that he will die very soon. As a result, he will try to avoid spend long time with his family and friends and to make deep relationship with people. Also, the patient in some cases get social isolation. The social isolation increase the risk factors of mortality as some psychologist notice, for example, the married (HTx) patients face less risk factor of mortality so they live longer***. Indeed, some patients get used for lone less and that decrease the opportunity of making friends or to be with their old friends if any. In such cases the family play a big rule to help the patient pass the tuff period after a heart transplantation surgery.