There have been a lot of human development theories that have helped understand human development and expand the field of human development

There have been a lot of human development theories that have helped understand human development and expand the field of human development. For example, Freud and Erikson’s psychoanalytic theory seeks to explain the development of personality through a series of stages. There are a lot of similarities and differences between Freud and Erikson’s psychoanalytic theories.

The first stage of Freud’s psychosexual theory is known as the oral (Miller, 2016). In this stage, a child seeks pleasure through eating, sucking, and tasting. The second stage of Freud’s psychosexual theory is anal (Miller, 2016). In this stage, the main focus is on controlling bowel movements. The third stage of Freud’s psychosexual theory is phallic (Miller, 2016). In this stage, children begin to understand the difference between male and female. The fourth stage of Freud’s psychosexual theory is latency (Miller, 2016). In this stage, children begin to socialize with friends and family. The last stage of Freud’s psychosexual theory is genital (Miller, 2016). In this stage, an individual feels sexually attracted to the opposite sex.

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In addition to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory also seeks to explain human development through different stages. Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory consists of eight stages. Each stage has a conflict or crisis that an individual must overcome before going to the next stage. Erikson’s theory maintained that personality develops in predetermined order and builds upon the previous stage (Sokol, 2009). The first stage of Erikson’s psychosocial theory is trust vs. mistrust (birth to 1 year) (Miller, 2016). In this stage, basic trust depends on the bonding with the mother. Basic mistrust comes from lack of acceptable care or maternal inconsistency (Miller, 2016). The second stage of Erikson’s psychosocial theory is autonomy vs. shame, doubt (2 to 3 years) (Miller, 2016). In this stage, young children gain control over bodily functions, learning to talk and walk, feeding themselves, and development of other motor skills (Sokol, 2009). Shame occurs from lack of parental support in learning these skills. The third stage of Erikson’s psychosocial theory is Initiative vs. guilt (4 to 5 years) (Miller, 2016). In this stage, children identify with parents as role models. They learn to imitate adults. If parents do not support or criticize their efforts, it results in a sense of guilt (Miller, 2016). The fourth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial theory is industry vs. inferiority (Roughly 6 Years to Puberty) (Miller, 2016). The fifth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial theory is identity and repudiation vs. identity diffusion (Adolescence) (Miller, 2016). In this stage, children start to develop their identity based on integrations of various identifications from childhood. Erikson states that if children are unable to integrate their identification, then they face identity illusion (Miller, 2016). The sixth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial theory is intimacy and solidarity vs. isolation (young adulthood) (Miller, 2016). The seventh stage of Erikson’s psychosocial theory is generativity vs. self-absorption (middle adulthood) (Miller, 2016). The last stage of Erikson’s psychosocial theory is integrity vs. despair (late adulthood) (Miller, 2016). In this stage, an individual reevaluates his or her social role (Sokol, 2009). Erikson’s theory maintained that personality develops in predetermined order and builds upon the previous stage (Sokol, 2009).
In conclusion, there are similarities and differences between Freud and Erikson’s psychoanalytic theories. For example, Freud and Erikson both believe that personality develops in a series of stages and each stage must be completed in order to develop a successful personality. According to Freud, early life experiences play a huge role in the development of one’s personality whereas Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experiences throughout the lifespan of an individual. Freud and Erikson’s theories are crucial in the field of human development.