THEMES

THEMES:
FEATURES:
Foldable
With storage
With upholstery
Extend to three seats
Don’t have backrest
MUST CONSIDER
Effectiveness of chair
Importance of foldable chair
Size of the house
The standard size of the chair
Philippine demands for chair
What wood to use?
Why wood?
Space Saving Foldable Furniture
Foldable Furniture
Furniture space saving designs are essential in our daily lives, workplaces, and built to make people lives easy, comfortable and relaxed. The effectivity of furniture as a space saver depends on the smart way of collapsing every piece of it such as stacking, collapse, bundling, and folding are the frequent practiced in terms of furniture. Also, by making it easier to fold. Folding chairs can execute in many ways that results in a more appealing furniture. (Li et. al.)

Figure 1. Foldable Chair Designed By Adam Goodrum
Figure 1 shows in the right photo is the fabrication results produced by MakerBot Replicator II ED Printer. This illustrates a possible way of folding a chair to save space.

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Space Saver Furniture
Today’s generation, home furnishing products such as table and chair that are foldable and space saving furniture has become very popular for its main function to save spaces when it’s not in use, are available in the market. The advantage of a space saving furniture is that, it is cheaper than the regular one as for the reason it is made of wood. Space saving furniture are transformable which possess much room for innovation in design and its demand on the future market. It is also aesthetically pleasing and resemble a work of art. (Wang, 2013)

Figure 2. Space Saving Chairs Product of the Designer Dripta Roy

Figure 2 shows the space-saving chair as a new and modern rocking chair. It is called the “Magic Chair”, the product of the designer Dripta Roy. Made of chair inspired by the Russian dolls that stack inside each other.

Multi-purpose Tables that Move and Fold
The MP Flex tables are designed to community and individual in workplaces and living rooms, Lockable casters allow the foldable table to roll easily and lock in place if done using it. Each table accommodates mechanism that lets two or more tables to connect in a manner of how hard the task and how long the table must. (MP Flex, 2013)

Figure 4. MP Flex Table Developed by Amir Paknya.

Figure 4 shows MP flex tables are easy to roll and lock in place. Each of the tables accommodates mechanism that lets two or more table connect. It includes tabletop power modules, rectangular grommets, and folding modesty panels. When work is done, the user can fold it and save space.

SUMMARY:
Space saving furniture helps in making life easy for every home. It has the ability to collapse itself, to give a pleasant and appealing furniture, and generally save spaces when not in use. As said in a related study about space saving furniture, one of its advantages is that it is cheaper than a regular one if it is made of wood. Transformable furniture has always a room for innovation in design and in future market business. Another related product is designed to accommodate a number of people when two or more tables are connected, as for the researcher’s innovative product, it is designed with three connected seats and can accommodate three (3) person when it is laid.

The Effectiveness of Ergonomic Chair
Preventing Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD)
The importance of reducing the MSD symptoms are an investment for a company or community and even household. It is important to know the average weight and height of a person or anthropometrics of a user, in that it will avoid suffering and use it comfortably for each individual who uses the chair. And it can prevent injuries and pains when using the product. (Sjan-Mari et. Al, 2012)
There are two factors of the musculoskeletal symptoms the modifiable and non-modifiable: Modifiable includes the body alignment or posture, nature, and duration of the tasks and job that demands physical features of the work. And the non-modifiable is the genetic predisposition, structural spinal deformities or disorders, and female gender. (Sjan-Mari et. Al, 2012)
Reducing Fatigue and Discomfort
While most people believe it is relaxing, sitting is actually hard on the back because it transfers the full weight of the upper body onto the buttocks and thighs. Sitting, especially for long periods of time, can also cause increased pressure on the intervertebral discs- the springy, shock-absorbing parts of the spine and also cause health problems such as back and neck pain, eyes strain, abdominal pain, leg pain, and repetitive motion disorders.
It’s also hard on the lower extremities since gravity pools blood in the legs and feet and creates a sluggish return of blood to the heart. Well-constructed and proper use of ergonomic chair helps in reducing fatigue and discomfort, increase blood flow, reduce the risk of injury, and increase productivity. (Rodts, DNP, 2017)

Comfortable Chair Design
We sit at school, at work, in the public utility jeep, buses, at home and so on. In sitting, the seat should take the weight off your feet in order to lessen stress on your legs. It should provide some neutral postural stability while you are in your home, in work or relaxing. Therefore, the seat must be fit to its users. Therefore the design of chair must be comfortable and not restricted in any situations. In making the chair, the seat depth should allow easy access at the back of the knees and the back angle should support the natural curves of the spine. (Gyi, 2004-10)
To make the chair comfortable, the user should enable to change his/her posture in intervals to ensure that every muscles can be used as support and there is no group of muscles gets tired. (Gyi, 2004-10).

Good Ergonomic Chair
According to the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, “Ergonomic chairs are designed to suit a range of people; however, there is no guarantee that they will suit any one person in particular.” Therefore, a chair becomes ergonomically design if it is suited for the person’s body measurement and to his or her particular task.
Selecting a good ergonomic chair to have basic concepts that need to consider, such as follows:
One chair does not fit everyone.

Collect data about the user’s body height
There is no chair suitable for every activity or a particular task
Maintenance, repair cost, and inspection should be done.

Good chair consists of features such as it is functioning well and do its job better. A well-designed ergonomic chair is a good beginning but it does not necessarily bring the expected benefit. The ergonomic chair is designed to allow the user to a balanced position yet it is still important to sit properly. (CCOHS, 2014)
SUMMARY
Studies states that with the proper use of ergonomic chair helps reducing fatigue, discomfort, Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD), reduce risk of injury and pain, and may increase persons productivity. By using ergonomic chair it could improved body alignment or posture as time goes by. And one of the quality of an ergonomic chair is that a person who uses it must enable to change herself/himself position over time to ensure that every muscle is capable of supporting and no muscle gets tired.
The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety provides some considerations in selecting a good ergonomic chair, one of it is that one chair does not fit to everyone since ergonomic chair designed to suits in a range of people and based in body measurements.

Ergonomically Stool Design Chair for Everyday Use
The shocking truth about the ergonomically design chair
“No, what we need to do is not to educate our school furniture, but to educate our children. Give a child the ability to adapt himself within reasonable limits to his environment, and he will not suffer discomfort, nor develop bad physical habits, whatever chair or form you give him to sit upon” – F.M. Alexander, Man’s Supreme Inheritance.

Chairs with backrest and armrest knew as “Aeron style” chair failed by simply because of its surface which when you sit it is unstable and it somewhat leaves immobility and freedom to the user, Saddle chairs are one style of ergonomic chair that is comfortable since the sit bones are well supported. (Alexander, 2015)
Saddle Chair: Improving Ergonomics
Many chair manufacturers use the word “ergonomic” to describe their products, one of the ergonomic guidelines is having a backrest. But Humantool, Saddle chair transforms a traditional chair into a saddle chair improving ergonomics of sitting people. This Saddle chair is small and light so it can easily be moved from one chair to another and doesn’t take much place. Use it in the office and at home. Swinging and balancing on the saddle activate the body and different muscles during the workday. The movement relieves tensions in the back, which are results of incorrect sitting posture or through sport activities. Also problems of shoulder and neck area are decreased by the improved position of the lower back.

According to the designer Antti Limingoja, when designing the saddle she generally thinks of the user as an individual, not as a consumer, however, it satisfied customers. (Humantool, 2016)
Ergonomic design stools
In addition, a company named VELA founded the year 1935 by Vermund Larsen. Vela develops and offers ergonomic chairs that are easy to adjust and accessories contributes to a safe and healthy work position. They produce ergonomic design stools, as follows:

Figure 7. Stools developed by VELA Company
Figure 7 shows the different stools; VELA Samba 500, 400,400 with small seat, 530, and 410 (from upper left to downward right), that are supplied with both hand-operated and foot-controlled height adjustment. The stools are easy to handle appreciations to its small frame and smooth-running wheels. The 3rd stool called VELA Samba 400 with small seat a saddle seat with angle promotes an ergonomically correct and active sitting posture. The 5th stool called VELA Samba 410 is a dynamic seat cushion, which promotes movement in the pelvis and strengthens lumbar region. (VELA Company)
SUMMARY
Ergonomic chair style does not always design to have backrest and armrest as we all know but another style of ergonomic chair is designed to be ergonomic even without backrest that called Saddle, a comfortable chair without backrest. In addition, another company provides ergonomic design stools that easy to adjust and contributes to a safe and healthy position.
Ideal Characteristics of Wooden Furniture
Classifications of Furniture
Furniture has been used in residential interiors that serves as storage, place for work, eating, sitting, lying down, sleeping, and relaxing. There are things to consider on what furniture you need to put on your room such as type of material, wood species, type of surface finish, and place of use of the furniture. (J. Smardzewski, Furniture Design, 2015)

Figure 5. Furniture for Sitting and Lounging by J. Smardzewski
Figure 5 shows furniture that has a different design, classification and functions that is helpful when you’re planning to minimize the space. The researcher plan to create a furniture that have a classification according to purpose-minimize the space, functionality can be folded, and have a good quality.
Study of Chairs
Sitting is part of our daily lives. Humans sit because it is one way to relieve tiredness and exhaustion. Since chairs are one of the most popular and useful furniture in the world, different kinds of chair are being produced. But it will be best if chairs are ergonomically designed to minimize these aches. Sitting in a position that adds stress to the structures in the spine. To avoid developing or increasing back problems, the researchers considered the idea of a foldable chair that is also designed ergonomically. (Dora, 2015)

Successful Furniture Design
Wood as furniture’s raw material has its unique characteristics as it swells, shrink, and warp depending on atmospheric moisture. In the furniture industry, the product designer or manager must understand the nature of its raw material; the wood. Additionally, the designer and manager of the product must also be concerned about the factor of users such as the dimension, safety, and comfortability for it is a product that has a directly or indirectly contact with the user. To develop a new and improve furniture product the initial process is to identify the customer needs then plan for its design that will answer the customer’s demand. Furniture dimensions come out from heavy research where a lot of people already done. Human dimensions gathered for designer of chair and for the furniture industry. The furniture’s design must be verified to begin the production. Modern style was based on the concept of mass production with machine. Therefore, the design must be simple but strong and function as well as beauty in shape with acceptable price. For production, the designer must cooperate with the manufacturer to examine the product in every process since chairs are furniture product that directly has a contact with the user. (S. Choodoung, and U. Smutkupt, 2012)

Figure 6. Dimension of the chair considering human scale by S. Choodung and U. Smutkupt
Figure 6 shows the wooden furniture height improved design from its original design concept of kangaroo with two-legged to increase strength between side flap and backrest.

SUMMARY
People’s one way to relieve tiredness is through sitting nevertheless chair has different designs, sizes and one of the most popular types of furniture (Dora, 2015). And, in choosing chair there are things need to be considered such as the type of wood, material, surface finish, and place where it will use (J. Smardzewski, Furniture Design, 2015). In developing a new and improve wooden chair or furniture consideration of human dimensions are necessary to create an ergonomically, strong, and beautiful product. (S. Choodoung, and U. Smutkupt, 2012)
Importance of Foldable Furniture
Usefulness of Space Saving Furniture
Dated back to the 19th century US saw the tremendous growth of their population. Many immigrants started moving to the cities to get job in the new Developing industries. The shift was rapid with people leaving the rural areas to live in the crowded and busy city for better opportunities. The population tripled and many couldn’t afford proper housing. That’s why many apartment or small space living has been introduced. Even today the apartment doesn’t have much space to accommodate average number of family member, so foldable furniture like chair, table, cabinets and many others has been created to help the families maximize their space. (Research Nester, 2018)
Designing a Multipurpose Modular, Flexible, and Space-Saving Furniture
Furniture in this period have invented new and modern designs, Furniture Industry had developed and innovate different products that help people in their everyday lives. Before, the furniture is used only for storage but now it is used also to increase the style or ambiance in your home. It is also show your social status or social class. Furniture have been rising from a simple to a complex design, it is now a furniture have many functions and satisfying designs and styles. Furniture are likely to be spacious and it consume spaces in everyone’s home, the concept of furniture importance is to save spaces and also to improve the ambiance of your home, aside from this it is also need to be more eco-friendly; ecology and economy. That is why researcher came up in an innovative design that can be more helpful to the users. As the time goes by materials used are available in the market in a lost cost without sacrificing its quality. It is important that the furniture is good for the environmental life cycle of a product. And for the economy, it is cheaper but have a good quality of product. (Varghese, Sumar, Lo Hit H.S, 2011)
Multi-functional Furniture for Underprivileged Communities
A vast majority of the world’s urban cities had slum-like subsections due to their dense population of poor people. In result, Dealing with a crowded environment where spaces is highly needed, multi-functional furniture could be utilized in small living spaces in communities like small apartments and mostly small houses underprivileged worldwide. Foldable furniture design might increase the effectiveness of living space utilization and the intention behind was to improve interior space usage. (Nasser, 2013)
Wooden Furniture’s Role for Households
Good Quality Furniture Should Provide
Any house contains more than one furniture that occupies large spaces, therefore, in choosing what furniture to buy it is important to choose furniture that is not costly, lasts longer, comfortable, functioning well and mostly furniture that does not consume a lot of space. On the other hand, you could pick any furniture you like whether modern or contemporary, traditional or antique, or a hi-tech. (Waterloo Region Record, 2015)
Wooden Furniture’s Characteristics
Wooden furniture advancement and advantage cannot be overstated from tables, chairs, bed frames, shelves, drawers and to different ornaments. Wooden furniture gives a warmth, sophisticated, comfort feeling through its wide-ranging color and fascinating patterns on household’s areas. (Five Advantages, 2018)
Advantages of wood includes strength and durability, variety of style and look, versatility and sustainability. Wood generally has a characteristic that gives satisfaction in terms of longevity mostly in furniture. A wood is a long-lasting and robust material where innate stability and reliability to furniture of wooden chair or desk. Wooden furniture also offers durability where it value money in exchange of quality and easy maintenance. (Five Advantages, 2018)
Furniture Longevity
Beyond the furniture’s modern and classy designs user wants a furniture that has a good endurance and furniture’s longevity answers the question how long the furniture would live. In another country, furniture’s are taken for granted therefore the study conducted to eliminate the repeatedly disposing of furniture that would promote the reduction of environmental impact. (Ingham, 2011)