The term “gender” came to linguistics from anthropology in the early 70s of the twentieth century
The term “gender” came to linguistics from anthropology in the early 70s of the twentieth century. For the first time he G. Rubin was used in the article “Exchange of women. Notes on the “political economy” of the sex “and is defined as “a set of conventions that entail a regulatory influence on the biological sex
as an object of social activity “1, 108. The purpose of the term “gender” is demarcation of sociocultural (gender) and purely biological (sex) characteristics of a person 2, 7.
Gender should be viewed as a sociocultural category, which is regularly recreated in structures of linguistic awareness of the individual, due to the peculiarities of a particular culture and sociocultural norms, i.e. This set of stereotypes and patterns of behavior, speech, proposed society representatives of both sexes. A gender stereotype is a separate type of stereotype, which reflects culturally and socially conditioned thoughts and presuppositions about attributes, attributes and norms of behavior of representatives of both sexes in the language. Each society in a certain period of its historical development forms stereotyped standards of femininity and masculinity, other in words, stereotypes of “typical woman” and “typical man”, that is, features, norms, roles, typical or desirable for those whom society singles out as men or women.
English-speaking society turned out to be subject to men who occupy the main positions in public life, business, politics. All these realities were updated in the term male-dominated society 3. A woman, according to gender stereotypes, weak, passive, depends on the man, acts as a keeper of the hearth. Such inequality in gender linguistics has been the title “gender asymmetry”, which became the core of feminist linguistics research.
Gender asymmetry in the language is an uneven representation in the language of persons of different sexes. AT the basis of this statement was one of the main postulates of feminist linguistics: language fixes picture of the world from a male point of view, so it is not only anthropocentric (focused on
human), but also androcentric (focused on a man). Thus, language creates a picture of the world,
based on the male point of view, from the point of view of the male perspective, where the female appears mainly in the role of the object, in the role of “another”, “alien” or even ignored 4, 55.
Studies of gender asymmetries of language have also contributed to a deeper study, and in
some cases and revision, word-formative and nominative language systems. Basic the achievement of feminist linguistics lies in the fact that she allowed the woman to “see differently” themselves through language, overcome some male asymmetry and dominance in the language.
Socioeconomic changes in the world, demographic trends, cardinal changes in the structure of labor resources, redistribution of duties and roles in the family, women’s struggle for war rights, feminism led to an increase in the role and status of women in the modern world, English-speaking countries, which is reflected in the language at the lexical level.
On speech indicators there is an image of a business emancipated woman in English-speaking society, which speaks about undoubted socio-cultural changes in the modern world and about growing trends of erosion of existing gender stereotypes in the influenced the functioning of gender-marked units in modern English.