Pearce and Robinson

Pearce and Robinson (1997) observe that all organizations without doubt have to interact with a environment which is dynamic; this means that they have to match between themselves and the environments in which they operates if the organization need to remain stable.
In Africa, most countries started to adopt the new approach in early 1990’s following the failure of the old bureaucratic model. South Africa and Zimbabwe had adopted the customer- oriented Model involving the use of citizen charters’Uganda had promulgated a result – oriented management initiative; and Tanzania had introduced the quick wins’
Strategic planning is one of the most accepted methods that organizations take up to create a vision for what they would like to accomplish and a course of action for achieving their vision.
Strategic management nowdays is a government- wide reform initiative in Tanzania. In the 1990s, after a substantial period of socio-economic reforms (which started in 1986), the government of Tanzania initiated an expansive public sector reform including the introduction of a strategic management approach that requires all public organizations to adopt strategic management in their management system. In order to cope with this new policy of adopting strategic management all public organizations are expected to develop long term vision, strategic objectives and establish the required level of resources to accomplish the identified objectives, Sulle (2009)
The introduction of strategic management in Tanzania has to be seen as typical reform efforts whose achievement is not dependent only on ‘policy pronouncement’ but also on the context to which reforms are introduce.
Strategic planning is an organizational management action that is used to set priorities, focus energy and resources, reinforce operations, ensure that employees and other stakeholders are working toward achieving common goals, establish agreement around the planned outcomes/consequences, assess and adjust the organization’s direction in response to a changing environment (
.Strategic planning enhances better organizational performance, which in the long run has impact on its survival and that strategic planning intensity is determined by managerial, environmental and organizational factors (Taiwo and Idunnu, 2007)
The success of an organization depends much on the quality and commitment of its human resources to implement laid down objectives. With strategic planning, organizations are able to identify their development goals and growth options, seem to be deeply into to their opportunities and strategically plan to wholly use the opportunities obtainable.
The effectiveness of strategic planning to the attainment of organizational goals and objectives depend much on the extent to which it is integrated to human resource functions.