PARENTAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND AND LEARNERS ACADEMIC PERFOMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKOLOMANI SUB- COUNTY

PARENTAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND AND LEARNERS ACADEMIC PERFOMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKOLOMANI SUB- COUNTY, KAKAMEGA COUNTY, KENYA

BRENDA MADEGWA (SR)
REG NO: 1028088

A PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUIFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND PLANNING FACULTY OF EDUCATION

THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN AFRICA

NAIROBI- KENYA

2017
DECLARATION
I Brenda Madegwa declare that this research thesis on parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County, Kakamega County is my original work and contribution of my supervisors. To the best of my knowledge it has not been presented for any academic credit in another university.
Name: Brenda Madegwa Reg. No: 1028088.
Signature………………………………………….. Date………………..

This proposal has been submitted with our approval as the university supervisors:
Name: Rev.Dr. Kabendera Dagobert Bashungwa
Lecturer
Faculty of Education
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa
Signature……………………………………………Date……………….

Name: Sr.Dr. Theonestina Katundano
Senior Lecturer
Faculty of Education
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa
Signature………………………………………….. .Date………………

DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to the late Superior General of the little sisters of St. Francis Sr. Professor Anne Nasimiyu may God rest her soul in eternal peace, together with her council for giving me time , consideration and motivation that was needed in undertaking this research and also my entire learning. I also dedicate work to my family members for being so loving and supportive my academic journey.

ABSTRACT
The study was focused on parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which parental socio-economic background influence learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County. This study was guided by the following research questions: How do parental level of education influence learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County? How does parental occupation and income level influence learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County? What are the socioeconomic challenges facing parents in enhancing learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County? What are the possible solutions to enhance learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County? .The study was guided by Walberg’s Theory of Educational productivity. The study was also guided by a conceptual framework. Pilot testing was done to ensure content validity. Literature from a cross the global, regional and local were reviewed to provide various perspectives regarding parental socio-economic background and its influence on learners’ academic performance. The total number of respondents in the study were 416 out of the study population of 3310 participants. The researcher used a sample size of more than10% . The sample for the study included nine secondary public schools, 333 students, 54 teachers, nine principals, nine parents’representatives and one education officer. The study applied proportionate stratified random sample, stratified, simple random and purposive sampling to select the sample.Nine schools were sampled using proportionate Stratified random sampling, 333 students were sampled using purposive,Stratified and Simple random Sampling respectively. Fifty four teachers were sampled using Stratified sampling and simple random sampling while principals,parents’representatives and Education officer were sampled using purposive sampling technique.Target population were principals,teachers, parents’representatives,students and Education officer in Ikolomani.The study employed quantitative and qualitative approaches specifically Concurrent Triangulation design. The study employed Cronbach’s Alpha to establish the reliability of the instruments with the help of the SPSS program version 23. The teachers’ questionnaire reliability coefficient was Cronbach’s Alpha 0.799 while the students’Alpha was 0.704 which indicated that the instruments were reliable for use. The researcher used questionnaires, interview guide, observation guide and document analysis to collect the relevant information.The instruments for data collection were validated by the supervisors and experts in educational administration and planning in Catholic University of Eastern Africa. Quantitative data were coded and analyzed in frequencies, percentages and means with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23,while qualitative data was analyzed thematically to obtain views,opinions and perceptions of the respondents.Quantitative data was presented using tables, bar charts and pie-charts whereas qualitative data was in narrative form and direct quotations and finally the researcher made recommendations based on the findings from the study.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I want to thank the AImighty God for giving me ability to study, good health and the energy to overcome the challenges l have gone through in my studies. My heart-felt gratitude goes to the late Superior General of my congregation of the Little sisters of St. Francis Sr. Anne Nasimiyu with her council for funding my education and for the moral and spiritual support. Special thanks too, to the Regional Superior Sr. Alice Wanjiku and her council for providing the necessary financial requirements that enabled me to carry out this research. God bless you abundantly with the entire Region.
Iam greatly indebted to my Supervisors Rev. Dr. Kabendera Dagobert Bashungwa and Sr. Dr. Theonestina Katundano for their guidance, direction and patience as they took me through all the stages of writing this thesis. Thank you for your professional scholarly suggestions and contributions. I do also aknowledge the Catholic University of Eastern Africa for giving me a chance to pursue my knowledge in their institution.
Equally appreciated are brother Deo mugema, Fr. John Kariuki, Fr. Gerald Bwenvu, Mr. Stephen Atsasa and Sr. Brigid Masinde for giving me the necessary advice, views and the required morale needed for my studies. I also thank all my community members for supporting me in their daily prayers together with my family members, friends and colleages. Special thanks goes to the Education Sub-County officer, principals, parents’ representatives, teachers and students of lkolomani Sub-County, Kakamega County who provided support and valuable information for this study. God bless you abundantly.My gratitude goes to all those who helped me in one way or another,though not mentioned here, your assistance was of great help to me.Thank you very much and may the Almighty God bless you all.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION i
DEDICATION ii
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES viii
CHAPTER ONE 1
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the problem 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 5
1.4. Significance of the study 6
1.5 Scope and Delimitation of the study 7
1.6 Theoretical Framework 8
1.7 Conceptual framework 10
1.8 Operational Definitions of key Terms 15
1.9 Organization of the study 16
CHAPTER TWO 17
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 17
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Review of Related Theories 17
2.2.1 Cultural Capital Theory by Bourdieu (1977) 17
2.2.2 Structural Functionalism Theory by Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) 18
2.3 Review of Empirical Studies 21
2.3.1 The Influence of Parental Level of Education and Socio-economic Status on Learners’ Academic Performance in Secondary Schools 21
2.3.2 Parental Socio-economic Background and Learner’ Academic Performance 27
2.3.3 Parents’ Occupation and Learners’ Academic Performance 33
2.3.4 Parents’ Income on Students’ Academic Performance’ 37
2.4 Summary and Knowledge Gap 42
CHAPTER THREE 44
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 44
3.0 Introduction 44
3.1 Locale of The Study 44
3.2 Research Design 44
3.3 Target Population 45
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedures 46
3.4.1 Selection of Schools 46
3.4.2 Selection of Students 47
3.4.3 Selection of Teachers 48
3.4.4 Selection of Principals 48
3.4.4 Selection of Education Officer 48
3.4.5 Selection of Parents’ Representatives 48
3.5 Description of Research Instruments 49
3.5.1 Questionnaires 49
3.5.2 Questionnaires for Teachers 50
3.5.3 Questionnaires for Students 50
3.5.2 Interview Guides 51
3.5.3 Observation Guide 51
3.5.4 Document Analysis Guide 51
3.6 Validity, Pilot Testing and Reliability of Research Instruments 52
3.6.1 Validity 52
3.6.2 Pilot Testing 52
3.6.3 Reliability of Quantitative Instruments 53
3.6.4 Credibility and Dependability of Qualitative Instruments 54
3.7 Description of Data Collection Procedures 54
3.8 Description of Data Analysis procedures 55
3.8.1 Analysis of Quantitative Data 55
3.8.2 Analysis of Qualitative data 55
3.9 Ethical Considerations 56
References 58
APPENDICES 64
APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE STUDENTS 64
APPENDIX B: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE TEACHERS 69
APPENDIX C: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE PRINCIPALS 74
APPENDIX D: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR PARENTS’ REPRESENTATIVES 76
APPENDIX E: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR EDUCATION OFFICER 78

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Ikolomani Sub County Results from 2006 – 2014…………………………… 4
Table 2. Sampling matrix……………………………………………………………….. 49
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………….. 13
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organization
KCSE Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
KCPE Kenya Certificate of Primary Education
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences
AGM Annual General Meeting
CUEA Catholic University of Eastern Africa
CATS Continous Assessment Tests
NACOSTI National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation
HODS Head of Departments
TSC Teachers Service Commission

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the problem
Education is a key component of human quality essential for generating high incomes and Sustainable socio-economic development (Ogawa, 2010). Improvement of quality of life of societies is partly dependent on the quality of education children get. Poor performance in education may mean learners’ are getting low quality education or may mean learners’ are not well prepared to attend to education calling.One way of improving education quality, thus academic performance is through ensuring learners’ are well prepared for learning.
One of the factors that can influence preparedness of learners’ to learn and perform well is the roles of parents at home. This notion is supported by Sanga (2004) who asserts that home preparation before schooling age contributes significantly to learners’ academic performance at school. Improvement of academic performance of learners’ therefore needs to take into account the role of background of parents. To date, there is marginal information that links the academic performance of learners’ to the background of their parents.
There has however been an outcry about the lucklasture performance of learners’ in Kenya certificate of secondary education (KCSE) as such there is need for intervention mechanisms to improve this performance and to ensure learners’ get chances to further their studies. One way of intervening in this problem is to understand the relationship between background of parents and academic performance of learners’.This study attempts to assess such link a mong learners’ in lkolomani Sub-County. This Sub-County is ranked among the poorly performing in Kenya certificate of secondary education (KCSE) in the country. Academic performance entails various aspects of learning and examination. Learners’ are graded according to the scores attained in exams and these rank from an E to an A. In most cases, learners’ who score E do not advance to tertiary institutions.
There have been various studies attempting to explain the relationship between academic performance extra-curricula factors like society influence, parental background and government. One such study was conducted by Considine and Zappala (2002) with aview of finding out the relationship between academic performance and the socioeconomic status of parents. The author found out that the “socio” and the “economic” parts of the influence had varying degrees of relationship to academic performance .The study is instrumental in pointing out the differences in degrees of influence of social and economic factors however,was done in Australia.
Carpio and Torner. (2005) conducted a study on socio-economic determinants of students’ performance in high school in Florida in America. The study revealed that a student who has not eaten for days and has no clothes that fit him or her cannot focus in class. Children coming from poverty are not provided with the same tools as the wealthy ones and are entering schools already behind those living in wealthy conditions major factors influencing students’ academic performance. It was recommended that parents and guardians should be enthusiastic about their children’s performance and progress in schools.
Qaiser (2012) conducted a study on effects of parental socio-economic status on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Karak district, Pakistan. The study revealed that those children whose socio-economic was strong showed better academic performance and those with poor socio-economic status showed poor and unsatisfactory academic performance.It was recommended that parents should be aware of the importance of home environment in their children academic achievement and also parents should be informed that they can improve the academic performance of their children through encouragement, provision of educational facilities and participation.
Raheem (2015) carried out a study on parents’ socioeconomic status on secondary school students’ academic performance in Ekiti state in Nigeria. It was confirmed that there was a relationship between parents’ socio-economic status and academic performance of secondary school students. It was therefore recommended that parents without or with low education should endeavor to send their children to home lessons after school hours, weekends and during holidays to improve their academic performance and also the government should embark on programmes or formulate policies that can bridge the gaps between children of the rich and the poor academically.
Kapinga (2014) assessed the impact of parental socioeconomic status on students’ academic achievement in secondary schools in Tanzania. It was established that majority of the parents were involved in the learning of their children as well as in the school improvement programmes. It was recommended that the government should review the policy of cost sharing and make it free to O- level students especially to low socio-economic status students. In addition, schools should have professional guidance and counselors to help students with problems to reduce the gap between low and high socio-economic status.
A study by Kamwilwa (2010) on analysis of relationship between parents’ socio-economic status and students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Kitui district, Kenya. Found out that there was a significant relationship between family size, parental involvement and students’ academic achievements in Kitui district. It was recommended that all stakeholders in education should work towards introduction of programs that are geared towards improving academic performance in the district such as academic forums aimed at improving the overall academic performance.
A study conducted by Nadenge (2015) on parental socio-economic status and students’ academic performance in selected secondary schools in urban informal settlements in Westlands Division, Nairobi county. Revealed that parental occupation and involvement in learning activities and effective parent-teacher relationship were facilitating factors, Parents’ low ability to finance education, coupled with the poor status of physical and instructional resources were inhibiting factors to students’ academic achievement in the study locale. It was recommended that the government should take steps to raise the socioeconomic status of the people and also unemployment should be controlled, poor students to be provided with scholarships and free books aiming at improving academic performance.
Juma (2016) on the influence of parental socio-economic status on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Tana River County, Kenya. Found out that parents’ income,parents’level of education,parents’ occupation and parental involvement influences students’ academic performance to a great extent. It was recommended that parents should be highly sensitized about the benefits of parental involvement in education of their children,and also the government should increase bursary allocation to students from poor families to retain them in school. Even though this studies give useful tips that can help improve academic performance of learners’ in schools,falls short of examining all socioeconomic variables that are related to parents’socio-economic background. The current study was therefore set to emphasize on parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County, Kakamega County in Kenya.
Ikolomani Sub-County is unique from other studies because is one of the two hundred and ninety (290) elective Sub-County in Kenya situated in the Kakamega County.It is boardered by Lurambi Sub-County to the North, Sabatia and Emuhaya to the South, Shinyalu to the East and Khwisero to the West.The Sub- County covers an area of 143.6 square kilometres of which 118.9 square kilometres is arable mainly under subsistence agriculture with a very small percentage under tea and sugarcane which are cultivated as cash crops. The Sub-County has also both boarding and day schools, numbering twenty nine. Some of the schools are mixed while others are gender based.

There are more public schools in lkolomani Sub-County most of which perform poorly affecting the academic performance of the Sub-County regardless of several interventions from the government such as provision of adequate learning materials ,deploying qualified teachers,consruction of more classrooms,intensisified monitoring of teaching -learning process by the inspectorate,free secondary education,well equipped laboratories and providing health care to students.

1.2 Statement of the problem
There has been an outcry about the poor performance of learners’ in Kenya certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) which is reflected in the mass failure of students in the years 2016 and 2017. This is contrary to the good performance in the previous years which is highly attributed to exam cheating . For the past two years, many students who sat for KCSE did not get the opportunity to further their studies due to poor performance.
Students in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County have persistently performed poorly in KCSE raising concern among stakeholders. In lkolomani Sub-County over a period of nine years from 2006 to 2014, the KCSE Mean Scores has stagnated below the a verage of 6.0 (C plain). This Sub-County is ranked among the poorly performing in Kenya certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) in the country. According to results published by Advanced Africa (2017) no school from lkolomani Sub-County made it to top 100 schools in the country.

Table 1
Ikolomani Sub-County Results from 2006- 2014
Year Mean Score Mean Grade
2006 5.00 C-
2007 4.71 D+
2008 5.13 C-
2009 5.04 C-
2010 4.84 D+
2011 5.439 C-
2012 5.228 C-
2013 5.363 C-
2014 5.654 C-
(Source: Ikolomani Sub-County Education office)

This means that majority of students in this Sub-County do not attain the minimum university admission qualification which is C+ and above. This dismal academic performance has raised concerns from parents and educational stakeholders, some blame teachers and students for poor academic performance .As such, there is need for intervention mechanisms to improve this performance and ensure learners’ get chances to further their studies. One way of intervening in this problem is to understand the relationship between background of parents and academic performance of learners’.
Although some studies have been conducted in different areas concerning academic performance, there is lack of literature to clearly show how parental socio-economic background influence learners’ academic performance in the Sub-County under focus.For instance,Simatwa & Waseka (2016), Were (2011), Musasia & Nakhanu (2012), Wekesa (2013) all cited students related factors such as participation in co-curricular activities, students’ indiscipline, absenteeism and peer influence as major factors influencing academic performance in their areas of studies. However, parental socio-economic background was hardly mentioned. Therefore, it is against this background that the researcher developed a need to explore on parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County, Kenya to fill this knowledge gap.
1.3 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions:
1. How do parental level of education influence learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County?
2. How does parental occupation and income level influence learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County?
3.What are the socioeconomic challenges facing parents in enhancing learners’academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County?
4.What are the possible solutions to enhance learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County?
1.4. Significance of the study
The findings will help parents to understand the need for them to improve their socio-economic background so as to be able to provide the necessary motivation in form of learning materials which will enhance their children’s learning and their academic performance. The findings will help school principals to have a better insight with respect to educational inequalities that exist between children of low, middle and high social status.
The findings will be of immense help to the teachers. Teachers will realize the necessity of individualizing their teaching by structuring their teaching methods and instructional resources to take care of the divergent parental backgrounds of the learners. Students will realize that their poor performance might not necessarily be their fault alone, especially those from low-status families. The findings of the study will help education officer regulate equal educational opportunities for all students irrespective of their family background in the distribution of equipment and facilities amenities to the schools. Furthermore, the findings of this study was to act as an eye opener to educational authorities in both the Sub- County and National Governments. The challenges that was to be found out by the study was reveal the actual social economic situation of the parents. This was to inform the education officer on decision making.
The study was useful to the policy makers in education sector to address the problem of poor performance in lkolomani Sub-County. The study was of great significance to other researchers because the information that was collected by the researcher contributed to their general understanding of the parental socio-economic background on learners’ academic performance.The findings helped the researcher to provide important recommendations to parents for improvement in students academic performance.
1.5 Scope and Delimitation of the study
The study was delimited to public secondary schools, parents’ representatives, principals, teachers, students and education officer in lkolomani Sub-County.The study only looked at the influence of parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools and not private secondary schools. The study did not select private secondary schools because there are no private secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County but only public secondary schools. The study was confined to three independent variables only which are parents’ level of education, parents’ occupation and parents’ level of income. The data collection instruments were questionnaire, interview guide, observation guide and document analysis.
Parents were selected because they were the first crucial individuals who took the real responsibility regarding their children’s learning. Principals participated in the study because they were the most important facilitators of school improvement in matters concerning learners’ academic performance. Teachers were selected because they dealt with students in various issues from time to time in their studies. Students were selected because they are aware of the problems they face in their studies.
Education officer was selected because he or she play important role with regard to students learning, also work more closely with principals and teachers on daily basis and interact more with schools. The study focused on how parental level of education influence learners’ academic performance, how parental occupation and income level influence learners’ academic performance, socio-economic challenges parents face in enhancing learners’ academic performance and possible solutions to enhance learners’ academic performance in secondaryschools. These four key questions will form the basis of the study.

1.6 Theoretical Framework
Walberg (1981) developed his theory through the empirical analysis of books, research and journal articles in the realm of education, teaching and learning. This study will therefore be anchored on Walberg’s theory of Educational productivity which states that to increase educational productivity and efficiency, educational process goals as well as achievement goals must be considered. Educational process goals are interpreted to include student perceptions of the social environment, creativity, self-concept, participation in extra-curricular activities and interest in subject matter. Ignoring these perceptions and experiences in favor of traditional goals measured by test scores will decrease motivation and ultimately lower educational achievement. The theory further states that many Educational experiments and psychological theories of education fail to produce desired educational outcomes because they do not clearly identify, define and measure educational variables for example ,the higher horizons programs in New York attempted to upgrade the educational experience of children from deprived backgrounds by reducing class size to five or six students and adding numberous enrichment factors because program directors did not consider factors such as the interaction between family and instructional environments, performance scores on tests were not higher. Considerable research is needed to relate educational policy and practice to productivity of schools. Methodology should consider students’ ability and motivation, the quality and quantity instruction, class social and home environment.

1.6.1 Strength of the Theory
The theory takes care of all the educational variables that affect educational outcomes, such as student ability, motivation, age, quantity of instruction, quality of instruction, classroom climate, home environment, peer group and exposure to mass media outside of school (Walberg, 1986). Walberg stated that most important factor of academic success for students from low socio-economic status is the home environment. It is more crucial than other factors affecting academic achievement, such as parental income and education. Schools cannot change the factors of parental education and income but have a positive effect on the home environment by educating and working with parents.
Walberg’s theory allows the parents to choose the schools of their choice for their children. Walberg holds that the family’s socio-economic status plays a significant role in the involvement of the student’s educational process.The theory involve various stakeholders in education that contribute largely to the learners’ academic achievement for instance, community support,parental involvement and the learner.This theory will be relevant to the current study as it will help the researcher to use it to conceptualized student’s academic performance. The theory will also allow the researcher to compare the academic performance of students in different category of schools such as mixed public secondary schools and single secondary schools in lkolomani Sub- County in Kakamega County.
1.6.2 Weakness of the Theory
Walberg’s theory has many aspects which affects learners’ academic performance. Walberg, Fraser & Welch (1986), identified twenty eight kind of learning influences, though they were further combined into nine characteristics there are still too many to work with or model in a study . Learners are also individuals, who cannot easily be summarised into groups. Their environment too is varied, for example some are from divorced families, others are from single parents, while others are orphans. Yet from another aspect you find that some are from working parents, others self-employed, and others are casual workers. Thus there are many possible combinations of the children’s background to model. However, the researcher chose this theory because it considers parental socio-economic background as one of the main aspect of learners’ academic performance. The researcher will overcome the aspect of many variables by limiting her self to only the relelvant variables(Socio-economic background) for this study.
1.6.3 Application and Relevance of the Theory
According to Walberg (1981) Educational productivity theory, socio-economic background factors are a mong the main variables that influence learners’ academic performance. The socioeconomic factors include education, occupation and income of the parents, which are the factors considered in this study. Thus this theory is relevant in informing this research and it has been applied by other scholars such as (Muchunku, 2014).
1.7 Conceptual framework
According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) conceptual framework refers to when a researcher conceptualizes the relationship between variables in the study and shows the relationship graphically or diagrammatically. The conceptual framework shows how the independent variables influence dependent variable directly or indirectly. It is therefore, a model used to identify the concepts under study and helps the reader to quickly see the proposed relationship. The researcher used a diagrammatic representation on how different factors or variables interact to influence the dependent variables. For this study the independent variables were parents’ level of education, occupation and income level of parents. While dependent variable were learners’ academic performance in KCSE,KCPE,Continous assessment tests and End term examinations. However, there was intervening variables which were between independent and dependent variables. Intervening variables are caused by independent variables, as being determinant of the dependent variables. The independent variables influence the intervening variables and the intervening variables influences the dependent variables. Thus, through the inter-play of independent variables, intervening and dependent variables, learners’ academic performance was influenced in KCSE.

Intervening variables

Independent variables Dependent variable

Figure 1. Conceptual Frame work
Source: Adopted from Murithi (2015)
This conceptual framework presents independent variables such as parental level of education (Mallam, 2009). Parents’ level of education is important to schooling as parents want their children to maintain the status quo. It is believed that parents with higher educational levels have stronger confidence in their children’s academic abilities and they also have higher expectations of their children. They expect that their children will earn good grades behave well in school and attend college. These expectations and confidence in their children motivate them to do well at school. The confidence parents have in their children help them to build their own confidence and self-concept which is important in their education. Saifi and Mehmood (2011) parental occupation has a significant effect on children’s academic achievement. Good parental occupation has a positive effect on academic achievement of students. Thus, influence learners’ academic performance.
According to Lutz (2008) the type of a job a parent does affects the levels of income in the family. Such incomes play a major role in providing for the children’s educational requirements. Lutz pointed out that where children are unable to take a balanced meal or have no food at all, education becomes a stump. Students who feed well have energy to study. Hungry and malnourished students do not perform well in their studies. Scientists argue that brain requires nourishment and proper feeding. If the nutritional value of food cannot lead to brain development, poor performance becomes imminent in many occasions. Inability of a parent to give a balanced diet is one of the root causes of academic failure. Thus, parental income influences learners’ academic performance.
Intervening variables such as government funding, teacher’s commitment and school infrastructure also influence learners’ academic performance. According to Encylopedia Britannica (2011) government funding of free secondary education in Kenya became a problem as the number of secondary schools grew. The government was overwhelmed by high transition rate from primary to secondary hence could not manage to provide adequate teachers and enough teaching and learning materials in most schools and these influence learners’ academic performance.
According to Mugambi (2006) teacher’s commitment to student learning is a key characteristic to successful learning and achievement. He further pointed out that great teachers are reported to possess certain basic skills which include charisma, knowledge of subject matter, language skills and pedagogical skills all these influence learners’ academic performance. Bell and Rhodes (2003) school infrastructure include the administrative offices, classrooms, staffrooms, laboratories, libraries, dormitories and school grounds. If these facilities are used responsibly such that teaching or learning takes place without a hitch, academic performance is influenced. The interaction of these variables determines the outcome of learners’ academics.

1.8 Operational Definitions of key Terms
Parent: In a school setting , a parent could be father/ mother, a guardian, member of the local community or any other person responsible for the school children.
Socio-economic background: Refer individual’s or group’s demographic, social and economic position in relation to others. In this study, socio-economic background was measured in terms of parents’ level of education, occupation and income level.
Learner: A person in a formal setting , for example a school, being taught to follow some course of instructions or training.
Public school: A school that is fully owned and managed by the government of Kenya.
Academic performance: generally refers to how well a student is accomplishing is studies. The indicators are student grade (scores) at the national examination level.
Secondary schools: Refers to institutions providing secondary level institution following primary education usually for adolescent in the 15-19 years age group.
Parental education: Refers to the professional level a parent has acquired.
Parental occupation: Refers to a main economic activity undertaken by parents to generate income to support his or her child in school.
Parental income: Refers to any monetary gains a parent may have access to either directly or indirectly.
Government funding: Refers to money given by government to non-government organizations and individuals for developments.
Teachers’ commitment: Refers to the fulfilling of their responsibilities to their students.
School infrastructure: Refers to the school facilities such as classrooms and furniture which enhance instructional process.

1.9 Organization of the study
The study was organized in five chapters. Chapter one discussed the introduction to the study. It contains thebackground information of the problem namely parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County, Kakamega County. This chapter also examines statement of the problem,research questions, significance of the study, scope and delimitation of the study, theoretical framework, conceptual framework and definitions of the key terms in the study.
Chapter two contains review of related literature, namely past studies that have been conducted in the area of parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance. Chapter three described the research design, target population, Sample and Sampling procedures, research instruments, location of the study, validity and reliability of the instruments,
Chapter three described the research designs and methodologies, the target population, sample and sampling procedures, research instruments, the validity and reliability of the instruments, data collection and data analysis procedures and finally ethical consideration. Chapter four consisted of presentations and analysis of the findings of the study on parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County, Kakamega County. The results of the study were presented based on the research questions of the study namely, how do parental level of education influence learners’ academic performance, how does parental occupation and income level influence learners’ academic performance, what are the socio-economic challenges facing parents in enhancing learners’ academic performance, the possible solutions to enhance learners’ academic performance. Secondly, the main part of the chapter presents the discussions of the findings.The researcher interpreted and discussed the responses according to the research questions. The descriptive data was analyzed using tables, frequencies and percentages. The researcher reported from the interviews, document analysis and observation in narrative forms in order to provide in-depth descriptions of responses from the study participants. In chapter five, the researcher presented a brief summary of the study, and then made conclusions of the study drawn from the key findings.Finally the recommendations of the study in line with the findings of the study.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
This chapter Reviewed the literature guided by the research questions. It covered both theoretical and empirical studies related to parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance.For this study, the literature covered parental level of education and learners’ academic performance, parental occupation and learners’ academic performance, parental level of income and learners’ academic performance. The chapter also discussed the theories related to the study. Finally, the study discussed and provided a summary of empirical studies and identification of the research gap that the study attempted to fill.
2.2 Review of Related Theories
This section critically analyze the theories related to parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance namey; Maslow’s theory of motivation (1943) and the Systems approach theory.
2.2.1 Maslow’s theory of motivation (1943)
Maslow proposed that motivation is a function of five basic needs, namely: physiological, safety, love, self esteem and actualization. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory has been used to interpret the entire range of human behaviour. These needs are arranged in the predicatable stare-step fashion. He also explained that a person’s physiological needs must be first met followed by safety needs, and then love and belonging. Then the fourth one, which is self-esteem comes in and lastly self-actualization (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2007).
According to this theory then, the parents’ needs are expected to affect the way the learners are educated. In other words, the parents’ involvement in the learners’ education will depend on the hierarchy of needs. The parent who is at the physiological level will struggle to provide and participate in the learner’s education. Since such a parent will be preoccupied with meeting the physiological needs of food, shelter and water. Then a parent who is at the safety and belonging stage will be involved in the education of the learner, but is likely to do so with emphasis on education as a way of providing future security to the learner. For such a parent the emphasis will be on the child’s academic performance in form of grades at the national examinations. Then those parents, who are at the self-esteem level, will try to get involved in the education of their children as a way of ensuring that the learners will end up in a high social class or profession, e.g. doctors, engineers and bankers. These are the kind of parents who will insist that their children study a certain profession even if the child is not interested or gifted for such a profession. Finally those at the self-actualization will get involved in the education of their children as a way of developing the child’s talents. The emphasis is on what the child wants to be according to its talents. These parents, they will be looking for the child’s talents development and not necessarily the final examination grade.
Some of the advantages of this theory include the identification of the needs of the learners, parents and other stakeholders who are involved in education. For example the theory helps bring out the learners needs e.g. love and belonging, which are critical to academic performance. It also identifies the physiological needs of the parent, which unless met, it becomes hard for the parents’ full participation in the academic progress of the child. The needs of the teachers too must be met. For example if the teachers’ salaries are not paid on time or are low, then the teachers will not concentrate on their work, which in turn will affect the learners’ academic performance.
Among the criticism of Maslow’s theory, is the fact that human needs are not mechanically structured. One does not necessarily have to first satisfy a need completely before moving to another. For example, parents can try to provide education to their children even before they have met their physiological needs. That is why it is not uncommon to find children being sent to school without food. Also struggling parents can look for scholarship for their children and send them to boarding schools even if such parents do not have adequate shelter for themselves. Teachers in expensive schools can end up sending their own children to less expensive schools. Thus it is possible to mix the hierarchy of needs.

2.2.2 Systems Approach Theory
The Systems Approach Theory was developed in the 1950’s. The authors who have made significant contribution to this theory are Trist, Rice, Kast, Rosenzwieg, Johnson, Kahn, Katz and Boulding (Saleemi, 2006). According to the Systems Approach Theory, an organization is considered as being made of dynamic and interdependent parts, which work together in unison to produce a product. The parts can be thought of as subsystems, if one subsystem is removed then the whole system is changed. Thus an organization can be looked at as having inputs, which are processed to generate an output. In a school setup the inputs are the students, teachers, parents, government funding, and the community. Then the process is the planning, organizing, controlling and motivating. The output is the academic performance of the learners (Bazimaziki, 2015).
According to this theory, an organization is open, dynamic and interacts with its environment. This implies that the organization will also be changing continuously as its environment changes. The influence is not a one-way traffic; the organization may indeed also influence its environment and change it. This means that management is always on the look for opportunities to exploit and threats guard against in order to ensure optimum performance (Bazimaziki, 2015).
One of the advantages of the Systems Approach theory is that it is holistic, in that it considers all the parts (subsystems). These parts are interrelated and interdependent. For instance this study will consider the parents, who are related to the students; the teachers who are related to the administration and some may even be parents in the same school. The government provides the funding from money raised in taxes paid by the parents. The government is interested in the whole welfare of its citizens while the parents are interested in the good academic performance and eventual high paying career of their children. The children are interested in the both the immediate academic performance, which will lead them to their desired career.
The next advantage is that the Systems Approach theory provides a framework for effective interaction of the sub-systems. For example the parents, students, teachers and government all come together in a school set up to achieve a common goal of better academic performance of the children.
The third advantage of the Systems Approach Theory is that it considers the environment. This is important because the environment where the children live, study, grow and play is has a lot of influence on their academic performance. Also when the students complete their studies they end up in the community, where they contribute to the general welfare (Bazimaziki, 2015).
One of the limitation of the Systems Approach Theory is that it has many subsystems, which are difficult to integrate into a unified whole. For example the school has teachers, students, parents, community, government and religious leaders. These sometimes have conflicting needs or requirements and expectations. Thus it is not easy to bring their roles together (Saleemi, 2006).

2.3 Review of Empirical Studies
This section reviews empirical studies related to the influence of parental socio-economic status on the learners academic performance in secondary schools. The socio-economic factors, reviewed are: parental level of education, occupation and level of income from the studies done globally, regionally and locally.
2.3.1 The Influence of Parental Level of Education on Learners’ Academic Performance in Secondary Schools
Harrell (2014) carried out a study on impact of parental educational expectations on academic performance of middle school African American male students in Florida in United States. The study adopted ex-post facto design and used quantitative research, non-experimental design and panel data that were compiled by the National longitudinal study of adolescent Health program. The target population was 132 schools, sample size for this research was 788 middle school students. Simple random sampling was used to select 132 administrators, 80 high schools and 52 feeder middle schools across the United states. Harrell employed only one instrument -questionnaire in collecting data. The data were analyzed descriptively. The findings indicated the importance of students’ education to ensure higher levels of academic achievement parents do not only verbalize but demonstrate to the adolescent what is required. It was recommended that empirical studies were required to examine the characteristics of African American parents, students and academic performance of African middle school males. There is a gap here, in that the researcher carried out his study in United states but the current study was carried out in Kenya. Furthermore,the study used only one instrument-questionnaire in collecting data whereas the current research used more instruments such as interview guides,observation guide and document analysis to collect data.
Dekar (2016) examined the influence and impact of parents’ educational level on students’ academic achievement at secondary level, Thimphu in Bhutan in Asia. This study focused on the parents literacy influencing the academic achievement of children.The
researcher employed quantitative approach with a survey questionnaire to get numerical data from respondents. The target population of the study comprised of government high school students residing in the capital of Bhutan, 12 students of government high school in Thimphu were randomly selected. The research instruments used were self-constructed questionnaires which were given to the students and their parents.The primary data were collected through self -constructed questionnaire. The data were analyzed using stastical package for Social Science (SPSS). Findings revealed that there were moderate positive relationship between parents’ education level and academic achievements of students. The researcher recommended that concerned agencies should initiate programmes to upgrade the literacy of the parents which will eventually affect their children positively. While Dekar (2016) employed quantitative design to find answers to research questions, the present study used both quantitative and qualitative design in order to corroborate various views from the participants.
Khan, Iqbal and Tasneem (2015) carried out a research on the influence of parents’ educational level on students’ academic achievement at secondary level of education in Rajanpur, South Punjab in Pakistan. The study was a descriptive research design and the target population were students of different public and private high schools in Rajanpur district,South Punjab. Two hundred students of grade 10 were randomly selected as a sample. The data were collected by questionnaires, interviews, and direct observation. The document analysis of the result of 9th grade students by Board of intermediate and secondary education Dera Ghazi were used.The questionnaires were assessed by experts in educational psychology and educational administration. Findings revealed that there were significant positive influence of parents’ academic background on secondary school students’ academic performance. The researcher recommended that parents should ensure to give learning facilities and opportunities to their children at home in discipline while this study targeted only students of different public and private high schools of Rajanpur district, South Punjab in Pakistan, the current study targeted parents’ representatives, principals, teachers and education officer.
Mudassir and Abubakar (2017) did a study on how parental education and parental educational qualification affect secondary school students’ academic performance in Kuala Terengganu in Malaysia. The population consisted of 26,569 secondary school students from 32 secondary schools within Kuala Terengganu in Malaysia. The study adopted descriptive survey research design, a stratified random sampling technique was used to sample the respondents, data from two hundred respondents were collected using self-administered questionnaire from four selected secondary schools within Kuala Terengganu. This means fifty respondents were taken from each secondary school to the sample size. The data collected were analyzed using statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS)version 20. The findings indicated that parental education had a significant influence on students’ academic performance. Therefore, the researcher recommended that parents should provide an avenue to take adequate care of their children education so that proper support and encouragement would be given to them accordingly. The study of Mudassir and Abubakar targeted the population of 26,569 secondary school students from 32 secondary schools in Kuala Terengganu in Malaysia. The current study targeted the population of 3,135 secondary school students from nine secondary schools within lkolomani Sub-County in Kakamega County in Kenya.
Muruwei (2011) examined the influence of parental level of education on their children in English language at the senior secondary level of education in Bayelsa state in Nigeria. The research design employed was descriptive survey. The population of the study was one thousand students of senior secondary schools in Bayelsa State.The sample of the study was 250 students randomly selected from forty secondary schools in Bayelsa State.The study used A 20 item-questionnaire, oral interviews and practical observations to collect relevant information. Based on the findings the researcher revealed that, though parents’ level of education affected children’s academic performance other variables such as facilities and learning environment were also very important. It was recommended that parents should provide basic needs for their children at home and at school. This study differs from the current study because it employed descriptive survey design to find answers for its research questions while the current study employed mixed method design in order to get well validated and substantiated findings.
Koskei (2015) carried out a study on the influence of parental educational attainment on academic performance of public mixed day secondary school students’ in Kuresoi Sub-County, Nakuru County in Kenya. The study employed ex-post facto design and the researcher used stratified random sampling technique. Also the study involved six secondary schools, a sample of 180 form four students were selected out of an accessible population.The research instruments used to collect data were questionnaires. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. However, the study findings revealed that parental attainment did not significantly influence students’ academic performance in Kuresoi Sub -County. It was recommended that parents need to be informed that they can contribute to the education of their by active participation. The study was different from the current study because Koskei study only focused on mixed day public secondary schools while the current study focused on teachers, principals, parents’representatives and education officer.
Keter (2016) carried out a study on the influence of parents’ educational level on pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools in Nandi south Sub-County in Kenya. The study was specifically to examine the influence of parents’ educational level on the academic performance of their children in public primary schools. The study adopted a survey research design. The target population was 1821 pupils and 528 teachers from 74 public primary schools,158 teachers and 273 class eight parents. The instruments used for data collection were two sets of a questionnaire.They were analyzed with the help of Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS)version 20. The findings revealed that educational level of a parent did not significantly influence the academic performance of pupils’. It was therefore, recommended that schools should introduce parent-teacher engagement programmes to help teachers and parents share their experiences and measures through which pupils’ academic performance can be improved.The study was different from the current study because it focused on parental educational level of pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools, while the current study focused on the parental level of education in public secondary schools.
Ngure and Amollo (2017) investigated on the influence of parental educational level on the academic achievement of unity pre-school children in Embakasi, Nairobi county in Kenya. The study employed a descriptive survey research design. The target population of the study involved children, teachers and parents of unity pre-school in Embakasi district. The sample size comprised of 27 parents, 27 children and five teachers in unity pre-school.The random sampling procedure was used to carry out this study. Instruments that were used included a researcher designed questionnaire and a documentary analysis. The data collected were analyzed quantitatively using descriptive and inferential statistics using statistical package of social Science (SPSS). The findings revealed that majority of the parents had a low academic level since most of them were KCSE certificate holders and hence were not capable enough to guide their children on academic matters leading to poor academic achievement. It was recommended that Literacy of the parents should be improved through training, seminars, adult education and encouraging them to start and complete their formal education. The current study differs from Ngure and Amollo’s in focus and location. Ngure and Amollo’s study was carried out to investigate on the influence of parental educational level on academic achievement of unity pre-school children in Embakasi, Nairobi County in Kenya while the current study focused on parental educational level of secondary school students in public schools in lkolomani Sub-County in Kakamega County in Kenya.
Jerubet (2013) in her study on the influence of parental education on learning achievement for pre-school pupils’ in Mukuru slums, Makadara division, Nairobi County in Kenya. The study aimed at investigating the correlation of parental education and learning achievement in early childhood development education. The study employed ex-post facto design. The target population were 12 teachers, 12 head teachers, 180 parents and 428 pupils in early childhood development classes. Purposive sampling was used to select 12 early childhood institutions among the 13. Teachers’ were randomly sampled and parents were purposively sampled. The instruments used were structured questionnaires and interview schedule for data collection. The data collected were processed, coded and analyzed using frequencies, percentages, tables and distribution of scores and measurement. Findings revealed that majority of the parents of Mukuru slums with children in early childhood institutions were primary drop out or certificate holders. It was recommended that parents should ensure that they know how their children in early childhood are performing. The study by Jerubet was different from the current study the former used descriptive research design while the current study used mixed methods design which enabled the researcher to intergrate the findings and draw inferences using both qualitative and quantitative approaches.

2.3.2 Parents’ Occupation and Learners’ Academic Performance
Bowden and Barkowski (2017) examined on the relationship between parental occupation and gender differences in mathematics performance of students among elementary and middle school students in Texas in USA. The study employed longitudinal research design and the target population were children of nine years from kindergarten. The sample size was 14,374 third graders, 11,274 fifth graders and 9,285 eighth graders were selected randomly. The research instruments used were child assessment in mathematics and interviews. Descriptive statistics for all variables were generated to determine the frequency distribution of data for each wave of the early childhood longitudinal study. The findings indicated that parents employed as computer scientists and engineers their children exhibited higher standardized math test scores than children with no parents employed in this field. It was recommended that social support should be designed to boost children whose parents were not employed as computer scientists and engineers in their mathematics performance. The research is different from the current one because it was carried out in Texas in USA while the current study was conducted in Kenya. Further, it employed longitudinal design whereas the current study adopted mixed method design because mixed method design allows more in-depth information and knowledge of the research problem unlike longitudinal design which takes time and data collected is not always reliable.
Arshad, Attari and Elahi (2012) carried out a research on parents’ profession on their children learning English in Bahawalpur in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to see the impact of parents’ profession on learning English at intermediate level in Pakistan. The study employed descriptive survey design. The target population was 430 students of intermediate class. The random sampling technique was used. The research instrument used were a self-reported survey questionnaire in data collection. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. The findings indicated that children whose parents had more advanced profession lived in places where English language was spoken frequently and therefore they were well conversant with the language than those parents with inferior professions. It was therefore recommended that parents should provide a learning atmosphere at home. Therefore, there is a gap between this study and the current study because it focused on learning English at intermediate level in Pakistan while the current study focused on parental occupation level in secondary schools in Kenya.
Chukwudi, Ugwanyi and Chukwani (2017) did a study on influence of parental occupation on academic performance of accounting students of university in Nigeria. The study employed descriptive survey design. The target population was 150 final year students of accounting in the university. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting 60 as a sample size and in the administration. The main instrument for data collection were structured questionnaires. The data analysis was done with the statistical tools of chi-square and t-test statistics. The findings obtained indicated that parental occupational level significantly influenced students’ academic performance in accounting studies. It was recommended that government should help to improve academic achievement of university students in Nigeria by extending educational support in form of adult literacy programmes to uneducated parents in the country. The research was different from the current research in such way that it was conducted in Nigeria and focused on the academic performance of accounting students in university unlike the current study that focused on academic performance of secondary school students in Kenya. Furthermore, the study employed descriptive survey design, but the current study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Ngare, Maronga, Tikoko and Sigei (2017) carried out a study on parental occupation on academic performance in public mixed day secondary schools in Nyamira North Sub –County in Kenya. The aim of the study was to examine performance of the Sub-County in KCSE which had been a dismal overtime. The study was carried out amongst 857 parents of KCSE candidates and 22 head teachers of public mixed day secondary schools in Nyamira North Sub-County. The study adopted ex-post facto design, 265 parents and 21 head teachers were randomly selected through census sampling technique. The instruments used were questionnaires and interview schedules. The data were analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20.The findings revealed that most of the parents were involved in manual low paying occupations which attracted low payments hence limiting parental participation in the education of their children. It was therefore recommended that government should come up with policies that can uplift the living standards of the parents, for instance creation of job opportunities The study was different from the current study because it was conducted in public mixed day secondary schools in Nyamira North Sub-County in Kenya while the current study was carried out in both mixed day and Single boarding public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County in Kakamega County.
A study was conducted by Kala (2015) on influence of parental occupation on career choice among public secondary school students in Mombasa Sub-County in Kenya. The study employed descriptive survey design, and the target population were form two students andparents. A total of 100 parents and 10 students from each school were randomly sampled. The study used questionnaires and interview guides as major instruments for data collection. The data were analyzed descriptively with the use of statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 18. It was established that parents who encouraged their children to follow their career path were major players in career selection of their children.It was therefore, recommended that parents should not force careers on children and career tours should be encouraged without regarding academic ability of the students. The study was different from the current study because the researcher focused on how parental occupation influenced career choice in public secondary schools in Mombasa Sub-County while the current study focused on how parental occupation influences public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County, Kakamega County in Kenya. Further, the researcher adopted descriptive survey design whereas the current study adopted mixed method design, that enabled researcher to explore more information both quantitatively and qualitatively.
Ngetich (2015) investigated on family factors influencing the academic performance of pupils’ in public primary schools in soy division, Eldoret west district in Kenya. The main aim of the study was to establish how pupils’ family occupation influence their academic performance in public primary schools in soy division in Eldoret west district. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population were 334 teachers, 835 pupils, and 334 parents. Simple random sampling was used to select 100 teachers and 250 pupils and purposive sampling to select 100 parents. The research instruments used were questionnaires and interview guides. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential techniques such as percentages and means. The findings revealed that parents whose occupation was low had more children who performed poorly. Therefore, it was recommended that social and economic policies should be put in place by the government to enable children from parents of low economic status to have equal opportunity of advancing the cause of their education. While Ngetich’s study was closely related to the current study, it did not deal with secondary schools. This study is different from the current study,because Ngetich’s study dealt with public primary school pupils in soy division, Eldoret west district in Kenya, targeting 334 teachers, 835 pupils and 334 parents ,the current study targeted 127 teachers, nine parents’representatives, 3135 students and one education officer.
2.3.3 Parents’ Income on Students’ Academic Performance’
Sean (2013) investigated on effects of family income on students’ academic achievement in kindergarten and elementary schools in New Haven, Hamden and Windham in United States of America. The study adopted a correlational design and sample size was 90 and from each school 30 students were sampled using students sampling technique research instrument. The target population was Kindergarten and elementary schools from the age of five years old and ten years old. The data collected were analyzed using parents’ survey and students’ answers that were compared with each other. The researcher established that parents of higher income took their children to school earlier than their lower income parents, and this had greater impact in their educational outcomes since it provided them with the required cognitive and social development It was therefore recommended that schools and teachers should have a background about students family income because not all students can do homework and assignments with many requirements. The study by Sean (2013) was different from the current study because it focused on kindergarten and elementary schools in United States of America ranging from the age of five years to ten years while the current study focused on secondary schools of between 14 years to 20 years. The study employed correlation design whereas the current study employed mixed methods design that enabled the researcher to access data using both quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Adzibo, Dzogbede, Ahiave and Dorkpah (2016) in their study on assessment of family income on academic performance of Tertiary students of polytechnic in Ghana,focused on sources of family income expenditure patterns of students on campus and students’ performance. Descriptive research design was used and random sampling was used to select 480 students across the faculties in the polytechnic. The research instruments used were questionnaires and the data collected were analyzed using statistical package of social science (SPSS) version 20. The findings revealed that although family income financial status affected students’ academic performance to some extent, but it was not an essential predictor of higher academic performance. It was therefore recommended that government and other policy makers concerned with academic achievement of students should take preventive actions such as developing programs related to counseling and psychoanalysis. The study of Adzibo, Dzogbebe, Ahiave and Dorkpah (2016) focused on assessment of family income on academic performance of Tertiary students in polytechnic in Ghana whereas the current study focused on parental income and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kenya. Their study employed descriptive research design while the current study employed mixed methods design that enabled the researcher to more understanding on the extent to which parents’ income influences learners’ academic performance.
Baliyan and Rao (2015) carried out a research on influence of parental income on students’ performance in senior secondary schools in mathematics in Botswana. The study employed a quantitative research design and survey method was employed to collect data from a sample of 168 students doing mathematics in form five were selected using random sampling method. The data collected were analyzed using statistical package of social science (SPSS) version 19. The findings indicated that income level of parents had a significant influence on the performance of students in mathematics. Therefore, it was recommended that government should offer some incentives for instance rural scholarship to the students, especially those staying in rural areas so as to uplift their income level. The gap between this study and the current study was that it focused on students’ performance in mathematics in Botswana while the current study was conducted in Kenya and the focus was on parental income in secondary schools.Moreover, the study used only one instrument the survey to collect data whereas the current study used various instruments such as questionnaires, interview guides, document analysis and observation guide to collect data.
Drajea and Sullivan (2014) investigated on effects of parents’ family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents’ involvement in their children’s primary education. A mixed method design with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Purposive sampling and simple random sampling was used in the selection of the participants. The instruments used for data collection included semi-structured interviews, participant observation, questionnaires and document analysis. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential techniques. The findings indicated that household poverty emerged as a major obstacle to educational success for their children. It was recommended that parents should engage themselves in other income generating activities like growing of vegetables and also government should increase salary for civil servants. The study differs from the current study in such way that it was carried out in Uganda whereas the current study was done in Kenya. Their study employed a mixed method study with an ethnographic element to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach unlike the current study which adopted mixed method design.
Githinji (2012) conducted a research on impact of family income and constraints it presents to primary school participation in Buuri district, Meru County in Kenya. The main aim of the study was to determine the major sources of income among families. The study adopted a descriptive research design. Target population were teachers, head teachers and pupils from the primary schools in Buuri district in Meru County in Kenya. The sample size was 46 teachers, 46 parents, 23 head teachers and 642 students. Simple random sampling was used in the selection of schools and students. Questionnaires and interviews were the main research instruments. The data collected through questionnaires were analyzed using statistical package for Social Science (SPSS) and qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. The findings indicated that majority of parents were facing constraints in financing pupils’ participation in primary schools. Therefore, it was recommended that to avert the problem of declining pupils’ participation in primary education the government should invent new policies and strategies to ensure that pupils from low-income families should have access to education. The study by Githinji (2012) was descriptive unlike the current study which adopted mixed method design which enabled the researcher to collect rich information from the participants.
Korir, Mizingo and Ngeno (2017) studied on influence of parental income and learning resources on students’ academic performance in Kipkelion Sub-County in Kenya. The study focused on home environment which included parental income and learning resources on students’ academic performance. The researchers employed causal comparative design, and target population of 2,132 students, from which a sample of 210 form four students were selected through stratified and simple random sampling. The tools used in the collection of data were questionnaires and document analysis. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as t-test (ANOVA). The findings established that home learning resources and parental income significantly influenced students’ academic performance. It was therefore recommended that most parents were from low income category which was a significant influence on students’ academic performance so government should subsidize school fees in day secondary schools to cater for students from parents of low income. This study was different from the current study since it focused on parental income and learning resources on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools while the current study focused on parental income on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools. Their study used causal comparative design whereas the current study employed mixed method design because it enhances validity and reliability of the research problem. The former study used only stratified sampling and simple random sampling unlike the current study that used purposive and simple random sampling in selection of the participants.
Ndungu (2011) carried out a research on impact of parents’ income on children’s participation in early childhood education in Kabati division, Kauwi Sub-location in Kitui district in Kenya The aim of the study was to investigate on impact of parents’ low income in children’s participation in pre-school education. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population were pre-school children, pre- school head teachers, pre-school parents and pre-school teachers. Simple random sampling was used to come up with a sample of units of five public pre-schools and five private pre-schools, ninety children, eighty parents and ten head teachers. The research instruments used were questionnaires, interview guides and observation guide. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. It was established that lack of awareness among parents on the importance of early childhood education and also parents in public pre-schools did not take the education of their children seriously because they did not consider early childhood an important stage in a child’s development. It was recommended that parents should be involved in assessment of early childhood education programmes so that they can own them. The study by Ndungu differs from the current study in context because it focused on pre-school education whereas the current study will focus on secondary school students. The researcher used only simple random sampling unlike the current study that used several sampling techniques, purposive and stratified sampling techniques in selection of the participants.
2.4 Summary and Knowledge Gap
The various studies that have been reviewed shows that there are dozens of studies that have been conducted in the field of parental socio-economic background that influence learners’ academic performance by different researches.
Harrell (2014) carried out a research on impact of parental educational expectations on academic performance of middle school African American male students in Florida in United states. The study employed only one instrument (questionnaire) to collect data. In the current study, the researcher employed several instruments such as observation guide, in-depth interviews and document analysis in collecting data.The study of Harrell also focused on academic performance of middle school African American male in Florida in United states but not on the influence of parental socio-economic background in public secondary schools in
Kenya which was the focus of this study.
Bowden and Barkowski (2017), focusing on the relationship between parental occupation and gender differences in mathematics performance of students a mong elementary and middle school students in Texas in USA. The study used longitudinal research design in the investigation. Arshad, Attari and Elahi (2012), descriptive survey design on parents’ profession on their children learning English in Bahawalpur in Pakistan. These studies did not address the influence of parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County in Kenya.

A study was carried out in Nyamira North Sub-County by Ngare, Maronga, Tikoko and Sigei (2017 ) on parental occupation on academic performance in public mixed day secondary schools. The current study involved both mixed day and gender based boarding schools. The study of employed ex- post facto to examine academic performance of the Sub-County in KCSE but the current study adopted both quantitative and qualitative approaches on the influence of parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in pulic secondary schools Ikolomani Sub-County.
Ngetich (2015) in Soy division,Eldoret west district in Kenya researched on family factors influencing the academic performance of pupils’ in public primary schools but the main focus of the current study was on the influence of parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kenya. The study employed a descriptive survey design whereas the current study adopted mixed method design that enabled the researcher to explore more information quantitatively and qualitatively.
Sean (2013) investigated on effects of family income on students’ academic performance in Kindergarden and elementary schools in New Haven, Hamden and Windham in United States of America. The study adopted a correlational design and a sample size of students were ninety (90) and from each school thirty (30) students were sampled using students sampling technique research instrument while the current study focused on parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kenya with a sample size of three hundred and thirty three students and from each school sampled thirty seven (37) students.
Adzibo, Dzogbede, Ahiave and Dorkpah (2016) in their study on assessment of family income on academic performance of Tertiary students of polytechnic in Ghana. The study focused on sources of family income expenditure patterns of students on campus and performance but the main focus of the current study was on the influence of parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kenya.
Chukwudi,Ugwanyi and Chukwani (2017) researched on influence of parental occupation on academic performance of accounting students of University in Nigeria. The target population was one hundred and fifty (150) students final year students of accounting in the University but the current study target population was 3310 in the public secondary schools. The study focused on academic performance on accounting in university whereas the current study focused on academic performance of secondary schools students in Kenya. However, these studies have not reviewed in-depth on parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools. Furthermore of the studies reviewed none was carried out in lkolomani Sub-County.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
This chapter describes the research design, target population,Sample and Sampling procedures, research instruments, validity and reliability of quantitative the research instruments, pilot testing,credibility and dependability of qualitative research instruments,data collection procedures and data analysis, research location together with the ethical considerations before, during and after the research.
3.1 Locale of The Study
The study was conducted in Ikolomani Sub-County, Kakamega County in Western province of Kenya, its central point is estimated at longitude 34.74 and latitude 0.1882.The Sub-County population is 104,669. The Sub-County is divided into four wards, Idakho East, Idakho South, Idakho Central and Idakho North. Administratively the Sub-County is divided into two divisions, Ikolomani South covering Iguhu, Eregi and shukumu locations and Ikolomani North which covers Shirumba, Isulu and Shisele locations. Ikolomani as a Sub-County experiences ample rainfall, it has fertile soils and energetic people. The transport network is fairly good though the majority of the roads are feeder roads which make it impossible to access during rainy seasons. The socio-economic life of the people is simple subsistence farming and small scale mining.Ikolomani Sub-County has 29 public secondary schools, 29 principals, 586 teachers and more than three thousand students. Out of the 29 public secondary schools , 21 are mixed schools, two boys boarding schools and six girls boarding schools. Most of the young people in this area have gone through both primary and secondary education. Ikolomani Sub-County was chosen because no other study had been carried out in the Sub-County on parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools.
3.2 Research Design
The research design is the researcher’s plan of enquiry that puts paradigms of interpretation into motion on how to proceed in gaining an understanding of a phenomenon in its natural setting (Bogdan & Biklen, 2007). According to McMillan and Schumacher (2010) research design is “plan for selecting subjects, research sites and data collection procedures to answer the research questions.” (p.157)its purpose is to provide within an appropriate mode of enquiry the most valid and accurate answers possible to the research questions.
This study employed quantitative and qualitative approaches specifically concurrent Triangulation design. According to Boeije (2010), this design enables the combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches and provides a more complete understanding of a research problem than any standalone approach. This design was appropriate for this study because it enabled the researcher to confirm or corroborate findings within a single study. Cross-Sectional Survey was used to collect quantitative data. It enabled the researcher to construct both closed and open-ended questionnaires that were distributed to the teachers and the students in the secondary schools.
On the other hand the researcher used phenomenological design to collect qualitative data. Ogula (2005) defines phenomenology design as one that uses human instrument as an observer to provide an in-depth investigation of individuals, groups or sometimes institutions in their natural setting. Through phenomenological design, the researcher was able to construct structured interviews for both the parents ‘representatives, principals and education officer. In addition,the researcher was able to make observations and to analyze the available documents on parenta socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools.
3.3 Target Population
The target population is that population to which a researcher wants to generalize the results of the study (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2012). It also refers to a larger group from which the sample is taken (Kombo and Tromp, 2013). For this study, the target population was all the nine (9)parents’representatives of form three students, nine(9) principals, 54 teachers, 333 learners’ of the public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County and one education officer of the Sub-County. Parents’ representatives participated in this study because they are the main subject of concern whose socio-economic background affects learners’ academic performance. Principals participated in this study because they are administrators of the schools and they are in a good position to give information on the availability of teaching and learning resources in their schools. Teachers were involved in this study because they are involved in monitoring students’ school attendance, assessment and evaluation and also know the learners’ well in terms of their weakness, strength and general behaviours. Learners’ participated in this study because they are the ones affected by parental socio-economic background therefore are rich informants. Education officer was included in the study because he or she ensures that curriculum implementation for quality education in schools is provided and his or her opinions are of great importance to this study.

3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedures
A sample is a group of individuals, objects, items or cases selected from the accessible target population (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2012). Sampling then is the procedure a researcher uses to select people, places or elements to study (Kombo and Tromp, 2013).Since this study adopted mixed method both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were used. These included proportionate stratified random sampling technique,stratified, simple random sampling technique and purposive sampling technique.
According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2008) a sample size of between 10% and 30% is statistically significant for social study. From this all the samples of this study was more than 10%. The selection of the participants and schools were as follows:
3.4.1 Selection of Schools
There are nine( 29) secondary schools in the Sub-County, out of which twenty one (21) are mixed secondary schools, six girls secondary schools and two boys secondary schools only. Since the researcher was interested in nine (9) secondary schools, a proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed to pick the schools. The mixed schools made up 72%, this translated to six schools, while the girls schools made up 21%, which translated to two schools and the boys schools made up 7%, which translated to one school, see table 1. Then the researcher wrote names of the schools on pieces of paper and put them into different boxes. Then someone blind-folded picked six papers from the box for the mixed schools, two from the box for girls schools and one from the box for the boys schools.

Table 2
Sampling matrix of schools in lkolomani Sub-County
School Category Number of Schools in the Sub-County (N) Percentages (%) Number of Selected Schools (n)
Mixed schools 21 72 6
Girls schools 6 21 2
Boys schools 2 7 1
TOTAL N=29 100 n=9
(Source : Education office 2017)
3.4.2 Selection of Students
The researcher purposively selected form three students. This class was selected because it had an experience in school and their performance records could be traced. The study avoided the use of Form Four students because of the need to avoid disrupting their examination preparation process. From single -sex school, the researcher was interested in 37 students, who was selected by writing “Yes” on 37 papers and the rest “No”. Then the students were asked to pick a paper each; those who picked a paper written on “Yes” participated in the study. The same exercise was repeated for the mixed schools after students were divided into two groups according to gender. The researcher was still interested in 37 students from each mixed school. Thus in this case 18 papers were written on “Yes” for the boys group and the rest “No”. While for the girls, 19 papers were written on “Yes” and the rest “No” Those who picked “Yes” in each gender were selected and the rest were left out of the study.
3.4.3 Selection of Teachers
Teachers in each school were stratified according to gender and from each stratum three teachers were selected by writing “Yes” on three papers and the rest “No”. Those who picked “Yes” were selected to participate in the study.
3.4.4 Selection of Principals
Purposive sampling technique was used in selection of the nine principals from each school. They were selected because there was only one principal in each school and they are key persons in providing relevant and accurate information about their schools on parental socio-economic background that affect learners’ academic performance.
3.4.4 Selection of Education Officer
The researcher used purposive sampling technique in selecting education officer because of his or her supervisory role and hence he or she was a key informant in the study.
3.4.5 Selection of Parents’ Representatives
The researcher used purposive sampling in selecting the nine parents’ representatives from the nine schools.

Table 3
Sampling matrix
Target Group Population Sample Size Sampling Techniques Percentages (%)
Schools 29 9 Proportionate Stratified Random Sample 31
Students 3135 333 Purposive / Stratified / Simple Random 11
Teachers 127 54 Stratified / Simple Random 43
Principals 9 9 Purposive 100

Parents’ Representatives 9 9 Purposive 100
Education Officer 1 1 Purposive 100
TOTAL 3310 416 13

3.5 Description of Research Instruments
Research instruments are tools or devices the study uses to collect the necessary information in a research study (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2004). In this study the researcher collected data u sing questionnaires for the teachers and students,interview guide for principals, parents’representatives, Education officer and observation guide and document analysis on all the sampled schools.
3.5.1 Questionnaires
Questionnaires are suitable and more appropriate for a large sample than interview (Kombo and Tromp, 2013). The researcher used the closed and open-ended questionnaires for teachers and students. The researcher used questionnaires because the study is concerned with variables that cannot directly be observed such as views, opinions and feelings of the participants. Such information is best collected through questionnaires (McMillan and Schumacher, 2010). Further Gray (2009) stresses that the questionnaire is a useful tool where the researcher can employ it to collect people’s opinions on the nature and effective of the programme. In this study, the questionnaires were used with teachers and students since they constituted a larger sample in the study.
3.5.2 Questionnaires for Teachers
The questionnaires were constructed according to the research questions. Part A sought information on the demographic information of the teachers. Part B obtained data on the influence of parental level of education on learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County, Part C collected data on parental occupation and income level on learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County while part D sought data on Socioeconomic challenges facing parents in enhancing learners’academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County, Part E on the possible solutions to enhance learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County.
3.5.3 Questionnaires for Students
Just like the questionnaires for the teachers, students’ questionnaires were also constructed according to the research questions. Part A obtained data on the demographic information of the students. Part B sought data on the influence of parental level of education and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County. Part C collected data on parental occupation and income level on learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County, Part D on Socioeconomic challenges facing parents in enhancing learners’academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County while Part E on the Possible solutions to enhance learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County.
3.5.2 Interview Guides for Principals, Parents’representatives and Education officer
An interview is a technique of collecting information in which the researcher asks the respondent to respond to a number of questions in face-to-face or on-line conversation (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2012). In-depth interview guides were used for the principals, parents’representatives and Education officer because they formed a smaller population in this study. The researcher was able to probe and also made some clarifications where neccessry (Gay,et al 2009, Best & Khan 2000) .The interview helped the researcher to use limited time available with every interviewee. It also helped the researcher to understand deeper of the interviewees’ experiences and feelings. Interview is simple because the interviewer has freedom to change some questions according to the reaction of the interviewee (Patton, 2004).In this study interview guides were used to collect information from the principals, parents’representatives and education officer.
3.5.3 Observation Guide
Observation tool involves the researcher (observer) to directly be present at the natural setting and take notes on an activity, behavior, relationship or process (Kaahwa ,2008). According to Denscombe (2010), the use of observation guide has the potential to yield more valid or authentic data than would otherwise be the case with inferential methods. The use of this method helped the researcher to triangulate the findings thus reducing chances of subjectivity. In this study, the researcher observed school library, classrooms, laboratory facilities and the condition of school environment.
The researcher was able to enter some of the classrooms while in session and used non participatory method to observe the sizes of the classrooms and the sitting arrangements for the students, the interactions between the teachers and students and the teaching resources such textbooks, libraries and blackboards. The researcher also moved around the selected schools and further observed cleanliness of the school compound among others.
3.5.4 Document Analysis Guide
Documents are written materials that can be read and are related to some aspect of the social world (Creswell, 2014). Document analysis is the study of documentary evidence available in order to obtain desirable data for research (Kaahwa, 2008). The researcher analyzed available documents related to the study to corroborate the data that were obtained from the questionnaires, interviews and observation guide on the parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ikolomani Sub-County in Kenya. Since the study was on parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools, the expected relevant documents to be analyzed included students’ academic records, school attendance registers and annual general meeting (AGM) minutes.
3.6 Validity, Pilot Testing and Reliability of Research Instruments
3.6.1 Validity
It is the extent to which research instruments measure what they are intended to measure (Oso ; Onen, 2008).In this study, the researcher used content validity of the instruments. According to Kothari (2004) Content validity refers to the extent to which a measuring instrument provides adequate coverage of the topic under study. To determine validity of the research instruments the researcher presented the instruments to experts of administration in the Faculty of Education at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa who assessed them before using them for data collection.
3.6.2 Pilot Testing
According to Teijlingen and Hundley (2001) conducting a pilot testing might give advance warning about where the main research project could fail, where the research protocols may not be followed, or whether proposed methods or instruments are appropriate or too complicated. For this study the researcher carried out pilot testing of questionnaires using two neighbouring secondary schools with fairly similar parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in public secondary schools. Since the two schools were from different Sub-County, the respondents in the piloting exercise were not involved in the final administration of the questionnaires.
3.6.3 Reliability of Quantitative Instruments
Reliability is defined as the degree to which the instrument consistently yields the same results when repeated measurements are taken of the same subjects under the condition (Kaahwa, 2008). Just like validity, there are several types of internal reliability measures such as split half, kuder- Richardson formula 20 (K-R 20) and Cronbach’s Alpha formula (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2004). The researcher used Cronbach’s alpha method because it requires only one testing session. Cronbach’s Alpha is an alternative formula for calculating how consistent subject responses are among the questions on an instrument. All items are compared with each other, rather than half of the items with the other half of the items. The researcher used a computer program SPSS version 23 to calculate Cronbach’s alpha. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient normally ranges from 0 to1 (Kipkebut, 2010).
The closer Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is to 1, the greater the internal consistency of the items in the scale. The following is generally the rule of thumb: r > 0.9 is excellent degree of reliability r>0.8 is good reliability r > 0.7 is acceptable r >0.6 is questionable, r >0.5 is poor, and r < 0.5 is unacceptable (where r stands for reliability coefficient). After piloting the instruments, the researcher calculated the reliability coefficient of the Likert scale from the questions set for the teachers and students using Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSS) version 23 to get the Cronbach’s Alpha (Nunnally, 1978).For this study the teachers’ reliability coefficient was Cronbach’s Alpha 0.799 while for the students’reliability coefficient was 0.704 which indicated that the quantative instruments were deemed reliable for use.
3.6.4 Credibility and Dependability of Qualitative Instruments
Neuman (2003) Credibility and Dependability are alternative terminologies used to determine the reliability of qualitative research instruments. He says that reliability in qualitative data means dependability of consistency in which a qualitative study uses interviews, observations and documents to record the consistency of results.
According to Creswell (2014, pp.201-204), qualitative validity means that the researcher checks for the accuracy of the findings by employing certain procedures. He recommends that in order for a researcher to enhance validity of qualitative research, he or she must have a prolonged and engagement and persistent observation in the field. The researcher must triangulate different data sources by examining evidence from the sources and using it to build a coherent justification for themes. Additionally, the researcher must use peer review or debriefing and member check through taking the final report or specific descriptions or themes back to participants and determine whether the participants feel that they are accurate. Using a rich, thick description and external audits also aided the researcher in validating the qualitative part of the research.
3.7 Description of Data Collection Procedures
In research, data collection refers to the gathering of information to prove or refute some facts (Kombo and Tromp, 2013).Before embarking on data collection, the researcher was expected to get permission from relevant authorities. After the defense of the proposal, the researcher made all the corrections and presented the corrected proposal to the supervisors who proof read and thereafter they endorsed their signatures. The duly signed proposal was then submitted to the Head of Department (HOD) school of postgraduate studies in the Faculty of Education at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA) who in turn issued a letter that allowed the researcher to collect data. Using the letter from the institution, the researcher applied for permit from the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) as required by the government of Kenya. The researcher, upon being granted research permit, reported to Sub-County Director of Education and Sub-County Education officer for further permission to conduct research in their areas.
Permission conduct research in a particular school was sought from the principals of the concerned schools. The researcher distributed the questionnaires to the respondents personally. The learners’ were given instructions by the researcher on how to fill and complete the questionnaires. All items in the questionnaires were fully filled before collected by the researcher from the respondents. Furthermore, the researcher conducted all the interviews by herself with the principals, parents’ representatives and Education officer from the sampled schools. The researcher asked permission from the interviewees to take notes and interviewee was comfortable with the note taking. The researcher also made observation together with analysis of relevant documents in person.

3.8 Description of Data Analysis procedures
Data analysis is the process of cleaning, coding and summarizing data so that it becomes information that can be easily interpreted and conclusions made to support decision making (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2012). The researcher analyzed data using procedures or techniques for both quantitative and qualitative data designs.
3.8.1 Analysis of Quantitative Data
Quantitative analysis is a process that requires the researcher to manage and organize raw data; systematically code and enter the data into the computer; engage in reflective statistical analysis using computer programs (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2012). The researcher analyzed the demographic variables using Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSS) version 23. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and means were used to summarize the data. The researcher presented the data using tables, bar charts as well as pie-charts.
3.8.2 Analysis of Qualitative data
Qualitative analysis is primarily an inductive process of organizing data, transcribing data into segments, coding, describing, categorizing data and developing patterns (Creswell, 1998). The researcher used these techniques to analyze data obtained from in-depth interviews and direct observations. The researcher organized the data according to the questions asked to ensure that the data makes sense and has a continuous flow. The researcher in some instances reported the obtained data using detailed descriptions which included direct quotations for conformability purposes.
3.9 Ethical Considerations
A ccording to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), ethical considerations are critical for any research. Leedy and Ormrod (2005), affirm that most ethical issues in research fall into four categories: protection from harm, informed consent, right to privacy and honesty with professional colleagues. Before embarking on data collection and during and after data collection, the researcher put into considerations a number of ethical issues. First the researcherl applied for research permit from National council for science and technology and innovations (NACOSTI) through the Catholic university of Eastern Africa. The researcher reported to Sub -County Director of Education and County Education officer of lkolomani Sub-County for further permission to conduct research in their areas of jurisdiction.
The researcher sought the consent of the study participants. Kombo and Tromp (2013), asserts that the researcher must ensure voluntarily participation of subjects in the study. Therefore the principle of voluntary consent was highly up hold. The researcher assured the participants of their freedom to pull out should they feel like without threatening them. The principle of anonymity was observed by asking the participants not to indicate their names on the questionnaires or that of the school. Kombo and Tromp (2013) emphasize that the researcher must maintain confidentiality all the time. The researcher ensured that the information given during data collection was kept confidential and all sources were acknowledged.
After data collection, the researcher sought the consent of the participants before revealing any information if deemed necessary to avoid causing any harm to the participants (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2004). The researcher took all reasonable measures to protect the privacy of the participants. The researcher avoided at all costs the use of threatening language that could cause fear, harm and anxiety to the study participants(APA,2010). The researcher remained objective and ensured that the findings, conclusions and recommendations were based only on the data collected.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS. INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION
Response rate

Demographic Information
The study sought to find out demographic characetristics of the sample such as age, gender and cartegory of the school.
Age
age_bracket
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
below 16 3 .9 .9 .9
16-18 277 83.2 83.2 84.1
above 18 53 15.9 15.9 100.0
Total 333 100.0 100.0

Gender
Gender
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Male 145 43.5 43.5 43.5
Female 188 56.5 56.5 100.0
Total 333 100.0 100.0

Cartegory of school
category_school
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
mixed school 222 66.7 66.7 66.7
boys boarding 37 11.1 11.1 77.8
girls boarding 74 22.2 22.2 100.0
Total 333 100.0 100.0

Parental level of education and learners academic performance

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APPENDICES
APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE STUDENTS
Dear participant,
I am a post graduate student of the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA)currently undertaking a research on Parental Socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in Secondary Schools in lkolomani Sub-County in Kakamega County in Kenya in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Degree of Masters in Educational Administration and Planning. I am kindly requesting your cooperation in responding to these questions to enable completion of the study. The findings of this study will be used for academic purposes only and your identity will be kept confidential. The participation is strictly voluntary. With your full consent and voluntary participation, kindly respond to the questions as honestly as possible.
Thank you
Brenda Madegwa
Post graduate student.

Section A: Demographic information of students
Please tick where appropriate.
1. Please state your gender Male ( ) Female ( )
2. Kindly tick your age bracket in years
Below 16 year ( )
16 – 18 years ( )
Above 18 years ( )

3. Indicate by ticking the category of your school
a) Mixed school ( )
b) Boys boarding ( )
c) Girls boarding ( )

Section B: Parental level of Education on learners’ academic performance.
4. What is the educational level of your parents
(i) Father
Uneducated ( )
Primary level ( )
Secondary level ( )
College/ University ( )
(ii) Mother
Uneducated ( )
Primary level ( )
Secondary level ( )
College/ University ( )
5. Please indicate your opinion the extent to which you agree or disagree with the influence of parental level of education on learners’ academic performance. The rating includes:
Strongly Agree (SA) =5 Agree (A ) = 4 Undecided (U ) =3 Disagree ( D ) = 2 Strongly Disagree (SD ) = 1
Tick the number which fits perfectly with your response.
Statement SD A U D SA
(i)Educated parents help their children with homework
(ii)Monitoring school attendance
(iii)Monitoring of their results
(iv)Checking assignments
(v)Attending school meetings
(vi)Highly educated parents set high targets for their children

SECTION: C Parental occupation and income on learners’ academic performance
7.Please indicate your opinion the extent to which you a gree or disagree with the influence of parental level of occupation and income on learners’academic performance. The rating include: Strongly Agree (SA) = 5 Agree (A) =4 Undecided (U) = 3 Disagree (D) = 2 Strongly Disagree (SD) =1
Tick the number which fits perfectly with your response.
Statement SA A U D SD
(i)Students whose parents are employed do better in class than those whose parents are not employed

(ii)Parents working hours affect their children’s academic performance.

(iii)Parents in informal employment struggle to cater for their children’s educational needs than those of in formal employment

(iv)High income parents are more involved in their children’s education than low income parents.
(v)Students who come from poor family background have lower self-esteem than those who come from well of families.
(vi)My parents struggle financially to cater for my educational needs.
SECTION D: Socio-economic challenges facing parents in enhancing learners’ academic performance.
8. What do you think are challenges affecting parents in enhancing learners’ academic performance?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
SECTION E: Possible solutions to enhance learners’ academic performance.
9. Kindly, in your opinion, outline possible solutions to the challenges that affect the enhancement of learners’ academic performance.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Thank you

APPENDIX B: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE TEACHERS

Dear participant,
I am a post graduate student of the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA) currently undertaking aresearch on Parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County in Kakamega County in Kenya in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Degree of Masters in Educational Administration and Planning . I am kindly requesting your cooperation in responding to these questions to enable completion of the study. The findings of this study will be used for academic purposes only and your identity will be kept confidential. The participation is strictly voluntary. With your full consent and voluntary participation, kindly respond to the questions as honestly as possible.
Thank you
Brenda Madegwa
Post graduate student.

Please tick where appropriate.
Section A: Demographic information for Teachers
1. Please state your gender Male ( ) Female ( )

2. kindly tick your age bracket in years.
25 -30 years ( )
31- 35 years ( )
36- 40 years ( )
41- 45 years ( )
46- 50 years ( )
Above 51 years ( )
3. Indicate by ticking the nature of your school
Mixed school ( )
Boys boarding ( )
Girls boarding ( )
SECTION B: Parental Level of Education on Learners’ Academic Performance.
4.Please indicate your opinion the extent to which you agree or disagree with the influence of Parental level of education on learners’ academic performance. The rating includes:
Strongly Agree (SA ) = 5 Agree (A )=4 Undecided (U )= 3 Disagree ( D )= 2 Strongly Disagree (SA)= 1

Tick the number which fits perfectly your response.
PPSS
Statement SA
A
U
D
SD

(i)Educated parents are more supportive in providing learning needs to their children than uneducated parents.
(ii)Parents with higher level of education are able to set a more conducive environment for their children.
(iii)Education level of parents influence learners’ academic achievement.
(iv)Highly educated parents set high targets for their children.
(v)Highly educated parents discuss academic matters with their children.

(vi)Uneducated parents are rarely available for academic meeting of their children in school.

SECTION C: Parental Level of Occupation And Income on Learners’ Academic Performance
5. Please indicate your opinion the extent to which you agree or disagree with the influence of parental level of occupation on learners’ academic performance. The rating includes: Strongly Agree ( SA ) = 5 Agree (A ) = 4 Undecided ( U ) = 3 Disagree ( D) = 2 Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1

Tick the number which fits perfectly your response.

Statement SA
A

U D
SD

(i)Students whose parents are employed do better in class than those whose parents are not employed.
(ii) Employed Parents are able to cater for educational needs of their children’s
(iii)Parents in informal employment struggle to cater for their children’s educational needs than those in formal employment.
(iv)High income parents are more involved in their children’s education by paying fees timely than low income parents.
(v)Students who come from poor family background have low self-esteem than those who come from well to do families.
(vi) parents struggle financially to cater for their children’s educational needs.
SECTION D: Socio-economic Challenges Facing Parents in Enhancing Learners’ Academic Perforformance.
6.In your view, outline Socio-Economic Challenges Facing Parents in enhancing Learners’ Academic Perforformance.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

SECTION E: Possible Solutions to Enhance Learners’ Academic Performance.
7. Please, indicate possible solutions to the Socio-Economic Challenges Facing Parents in Enhancing Learners’ Academic Perforformance?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Thank you

APPENDIX C: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE PRINCIPALS
I am a student at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA) pursuing a master Degree in Educational Administration and Planning. I am currently undertaking a research which is a requirement for the fore mentioned degree. My research topic is Parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in Secondary Schools in lkolomani Sub- County in Kenya. I would kindly request you to have a one to one interview to enable me get the relevant data for my study. The findings of this study will be used for academic purposes only and your identity will be kept confidential. Please feel free to participate in this interview as honestly as possible.
Demographic Data
Section A: Demographic information of Principals
1. Gender
2. Age
Section B: Parental Level of Education on Learners Academic Performance
3. What is the general level of education of your parents in your school?
4. What is the level of participation of parents in the meetings?5. Comment on the parents’ response to the school administration demands for example paying
school fees, buying scholastic materials for their children, and extra fees for field trips.
5. Comment on the parents’ participation in the class academic days for their children.
6. Comment on the level of education of the parents and their response when invited to the academic meetings and their participation at such meetings.
Section C: Parents’ Occupation and Level of Income on Learners Academic Performance
7. What are the common occupations for the parents in your school?
8. What is the general level of income of the parents in your school?
10. In your opinion, how do parental occupation and level of income contribute to the learners’ academic performance?
11. Comment on the Parents’ occupation and level of income and their involvement in their childrens’ education.
12. Comment on the parents’ occupation and level of income and their involvement in the school’s co-curricular activities.
13. In your own opinion, what other socioeconomic challenges parents are facing in your school?
14.Comment on the general challenges the school administrators face in dealing with socioeconomic challenges facing parents in your school.
Section D: Possible Solutions to Enhance the learners’ academic performance
15. In your opinion what are some of the solutions, which can help to enhance the learners’ academic performance?
16. What are some of the solutions which your administration has tried out to improve the learners’ academic performance?
17. Of the solutions you have tried out, which ones have been more effective than the others?
APPENDIX D: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR PARENTS’ REPRESENTATIVES
Dear participant,
I am a student at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA) pursuing a Master Degree in Educational Administration and planning. I am currently undertaking a research which is one of the requirement for the fore mentioned degree. My research topic is Parental socio-economic background and learners’ academic performance in secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County in Kenya. I would kindly request you to have a one to one interview to enable me to get the relevant data for my study. The findings of this study will be used for academic purposes only and your identity will be kept confidential. Please feel free to participate in this interview as honestly as possible.
Thank you.
SECTION A: Demographic information of parents
1. Gender
2. Age
Section B: Parents’ Level of Education on Learners Academic Performance
3. Comment on the parent’s level of education in your school.
4. In your opinion, how do parental level of education affect learners’ academic performance in your school ?
5. What is the general response of the parents to the school administration’s invitation to attend the meetings?
6. What is the level of the parents’ participation in the following up on the academic progress of their children?
Section C: Parent’s Occupation and level of Income on Learners’ Academic Performance
7. What are the common occupations for the parents in your school?
8. What is the general level of income of the parents in your school?
9. In your opinion, how do parental occupation and level of income contribute to the learners’ academic performance ?
10. Comment on the Parents’ occupation and level of income and their involvement in their children’s education.
11. Comment on the parents’ occupation and level of income and their involvement in the school’s co-curricular activities.
12. What challenges are you facing as a parent representative in dealing with socioeconomic challenges facing parents in your school?
Section D: Possible Solutions to Enhance the learners’ academic performance
13. In your opinion, what are some of the solutions which can help to enhance the learners’ academic performance?
14. What are some of the solutions which have been tried out to improve the learners’ academic performance in your school?
15. Of the solutions tried out, which ones have been more effective than the others?
16.What has been the role of the parents in the improvement of the academic performance of their children ?

APPENDIX E: INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR EDUCATION OFFICER
Dear participant,
I am a student at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA) Pursuing a Master degree in Educational Administration and planning. I am currently undertaking a research which is one of the requirement for the fore mentioned degree. My research topic is Parental socio-economic background and learners ‘academic performance in secondary schools in lkolomani Sub-County in Kakamega County in Kenya. I would kindly request you to have a one to one interview to enable me get the relevant data for my study. The findings of this study will be used for academic purposes only and your identity will be kept confidential. Please feel free to participate in this interview as honestly as possible.
Thank you
SECTION A: Demographic information of Education officer
1. Gender
2. Age
Section B: Parents’ Level of Education on Learners Academic Performance
3. Comment on the parent’s level of education in your Sub-County.
4. In your opinion, how do parental level of education affect learners’ academic performance in your Sub -County?
5. What is the general level of participation of parents in the schools’ activities in the Sub-County?
6. What are the main complains from principals about the academic performance of the children in their schools?
7. Comment on the Government’s role in the improvement of the learners’ academic performance in the Sub-County.
Section C: Parent’s Occupation and level of Income on Learners’ Academic Performance
8. What are the common occupations for the parents in your Sub-County?
9. What is the general level of income of the parents in the Sub-County?
10. In your opinion, how do parental occupation and level of income contribute to the learners’ academic performance in the Sub- County?
11 Comment on the Parents’ occupation and level of income and their involvement in their children’s education in the Sub – County.
12. Comment on the parents’ occupation and level of income and their involvement in the school’s co-curricular activities in the Sub- County.
Section D: Possible Solutions to Enhance the learners’ academic performance
13. What measures has the Government put in place to improve the learners’ academic performance in the Sub- County?
14. Which of the above measures have been most effective?
15. What else can be done to improve the learners’ performance in the Sub-County ?
16. How are Government resources distributed in the Schools in the Sub-County and how can the system be improved?
DOCUMENT ANALYSIS GUIDE
1. Students’ academic records
2. School attendance registers
3. Annual general meeting (AGM) minutes

OBSERVATION GUIDE ON TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES/ INFRASTRUCTURE
ITEMS Available Not available Comments
(i)Equipped libray
(ii)Classrooms
(iii)Laboratory facilities
(iv)Condition of environment