Name: < Madeleine Moreau >
Social Studies 30-1: Rejections of Liberalism
Unit 4 Section Two
Conflicting Ideologies Assignment
In this section, you considered the impact of ideological conflict on international affairs. Many strategies were employed by both sides as the incompatible ideologies of liberal democracy and communist totalitarianism strove for global domination.
In this two-part assignment, you will use your knowledge, imagination, and creativity to construct an illustrated presentation to demonstrate your understanding of the conflicts of the Cold War era. Be sure to review all the readings from this section before you complete this assignment.
Part One 20 marks
Choose five of the terms below. For each term, select an image that illustrates the key features suggested. You may choose to illustrate the concept symbolically or provide an example.
mutually assured destruction
The image can be your own photo, a photograph from the Internet or a magazine, a cartoon, or a representation that you have constructed.
Possible image sources include the following:
Flicker Photo Sharing: http://www.flickr.com/
Picasa Photo Sharing: http://picasa.google.com/
United States Library of Congress Digital Collection: http://www.loc.gov/library/libarch-digital.html
Creative Commons Image Search: http://search.creativecommons.org/#
After you have chosen your images, compile them into a mosaic or collage. You may use Mosaic Maker at http://bighugelabs.com/mosaic.php or some other software program to generate your mosaic, or you can inset your images into a table.
Insert your mosaic into the space below the example:
Identify the term that goes with each individual image, and explain why you selected it. Your explanation should show your understanding of the term and how it was used during the Cold War. Explain any aspects of the term that the images do not explain. An example is provided.
Sphere of Influence: This image is a sphere, like the earth. Within the sphere are several smaller spheres representing various countries, in patterns of colour that represent the various areas in which the Soviet Union and the United States had influence. The red represents the Soviet Union, with most of its sphere of influence within one geographic area, but with other allied communist countries in other parts of the globe. The United States areas of influence are gold, mostly western Europe. There are other areas as well representing the non-aligned nations. It’s not exactly accurate in terms of how much geographic area the different spheres had and it doesn’t show the techniques used to create and maintain the two superpowers.
I also liked this picture because it used bright colours such as those you would see in the 1950s to 1970s, which is when most of the Cold War took place.
Brinkmanship: defined as “the art or practice of pursuing a dangerous policy to the limits of safety before stopping, typically in politics.” (cited from wikipedia)
I used this image of Donald Trump and Kim Jong-un stating on the edges of opposing cliffs with many missiles in the background. I used this image as it clearly depicts the ongoing ties between the United States and Korea in regards to war. With the Korean leader calling the President names, he took it upon himself to discuss the nuclear weapons in his possession with the United Nations. Threats are continuing to be made by both parties without looking at the safety and well-being of both countries.
Proxy War: Defined as “a war instigated by a major power that does not itself become involved.”(cited from wikipedia)
Using the Korean War as an example, the slip of the North (ruled by the the soviet union) and the South (ruled by the United states). With both influential nations showing interest in Korea during the war, the liberation movement came into effect. Due to this, North and South Korea declared what they called a “hot war”. As North and South Korea were in the same country, the physical military battles quickly came into play. Whereas between the Soviet Union and the United States, it was a “cold war”, or a war of threats. Because these two countries were not actually in the battles, I chose to use an image of a pupett as they both were controlling another nations without actually getting affected by the situation.
Deterrence: defined as ” the action of discouraging an action or event through instilling doubt or fear of the consequences.”(cited from wikipedia)
Deterrence was prominently seen during the Cold War. During the time, the United States and the Soviet Union began creating more and more nuclear arms. This image shows two parties with many nuclear weapons on either side. The message “on no account to be used the enemy might retaliate” is seen on either side of the image. It is demonstrating that neither country will use their nuclear bombs, as it will in turn be detrimental to both sides as they will retaliate.
Detente: defined as “the easing of hostility or strained relations, especially between countries.”(cited from wikipedia)
The period when tension between nations was low is known as “detente”. The United States and Soviet Union met at summits and came to many agreements, signing many treaties and pacts to reduce the amount of conflict between the two aspiring nations. During the time of the Vietnam War, the economy of the United States was struggling. More money than was previously anticipated was being used to create social programs. Due to these negative effects on both nations, many agreements were signed over a 20 year time period. Agreements including: Helsinki Accords, START 1, and many others were signed from 1060-1979. This made it possible for countries with different beliefs and ideologies to work together and create a relationship that affects both countries in a positive manner. This image shows a bear and an eagle, two animals that you would never see together, cooperating. The baby in the carriage that is a mix of both animals truly shows the positive effects of their cooperation. In turn this sums up the main idea that detent brings.
Non-alignment: refined as “Non-Aligned Movement, movement of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. non-belligerent, in a war.”(cited from wikipedia)
Many countries with history of European imperialism wished to get away from the influential nation, and create their own ideologies and in turn a non influenced nation. The non-alignment was formed by the coming together of many countries like: Egypt, India, Indonesia, and many more. These countries all had one common goal, to maintain neutrality among influential nations. Nevertheless, their flee for independence was not successful with the United States and Soviet Union’s extreme powers. I chose this image as it shows a dove, a symbol for peace. This image was a symbol during the movement and although it does not relate directly, the overall meaning of the symbol is the basis for the movement.
Part One Rubric
Scoring Criteria:Paragraphs and Discussions Ideas and Support10
The student… Communication of Ideas5
The student… Quality of Visual Presentation
Excellent provides thoughtful ideas and thorough explanations
support is specific, relevant, and accurate
demonstrates a confident and perceptive understanding of the assigned task
10 writes fluently with effective organization
uses vocabulary that is precise, accurate, and effective
controls confidently sentence construction, grammar, and mechanics
5 chooses visuals that are purposeful and compelling
makes highly effective use of the medium
Proficient provides meaningful ideas and appropriate explanations
uses support that is relevant and appropriate but may contain minor errors
demonstrates a proficient and clear understanding of the assigned task
8 writes and organizes proficiently
uses vocabulary that is specific, accurate, and appropriate
controls proficiently sentence construction, grammar, and mechanics
4 chooses visuals that are convincing and meaningful
makes effective use of the medium
Satisfactory provides straightforward ideas and general explanations
uses support that is relevant but general and /or incompletely developed
demonstrates an acceptable understanding of the assigned task
6 writes generally clearly and organizes functionally
uses vocabulary that is appropriate and generally accurate but not specific
controls satisfactorily sentence construction, grammar, and mechanics; minor errors do not interfere seriously with communication
3 chooses visuals that are credible and conventional
uses the medium adequately
Limited provides ideas and/or explanations that are limited and over-generalized
uses support that is superficial and may not always be relevant
demonstrates a limited understanding of the assigned task
4 writes unevenly and /or incompletely
uses vocabulary that is general and/or imprecise and/or inappropriate
controls falteringly sentence construction, grammar, and mechanics
2 chooses incomplete or inadequate visuals
uses the medium ineffectively
Poor provides ideas and/or explanations that are minimal and/or tangential
uses support that, if present, is superficial, incomplete, and/or marginally relevant
demonstrates a minimal understanding of the assigned task
2 writes unclearly and without organization
uses vocabulary that is ineffective and frequently incorrect
lacks control of sentence construction, grammar, and mechanics
1 chooses irrelevant, confused or inaccurate visuals
uses the medium unsuccessfully
Part Two10 marks
For each of the five remaining terms write a short paragraph demonstrating your understanding of how each term was associated with the period of tensions and suspicions between the superpowers during the Cold War. Provide specific evidence to support your explanation
Mutually Assured Destruction: An unwinnable and lose-lose situation for both parties.
An example of this would be the nuclear weapons that both the United States and Soviet Union had access to. They knew that if one party launched a weapon, the other would send one in the opposite direction. Hence why no weapons were actually used during this time, they were just open ended threats.
Liberation Movement: It occurs when a “country rebels against the country that colonized it or otherwise oppressed it”.
A strong example of a liberation movement is the Korean War. North and South Korea were both fighting for each other’s oppression. North Korea was fought by many allies of the South, including the United States. These countries came together in a stance of a liberation movement. The Soviet Union and their allies helped to fight South Korea to stop the war.
Expansionism: Defined as the attempt to enlarge territorial and ideological influence beyond the country’s borders, the Cold War was a perfect example of how Soviet Union and the United States successfully countries “contained” the non-alignment unions, so that either side will have their expansionism process hindered
Defined as the attempt to thwart another country’s expansionism through means other than direct warfare. During the beginning of the Cold War, Stalin wanted to keep Germany divided to avoid going war with Germany, while United States and its allies pushed to unify the German zones.
Coined by President Eisenhower, the domino theory was the strongest argument to persuade the U.S. citizens that it should withdraw from the Vietnam War. Or else, it would result in a ‘falling domino’ principle, where the loss of Vietnam would result in similar communist victories in its neighbouring countries, such as Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and etc