LIBRARY DEPARTMENT DIPLOMA IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION MATERIALS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES

LIBRARY DEPARTMENT
DIPLOMA IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION MATERIALS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES
(Case study of the McMillan memorial library)
SUBMITTED BY: Malogho Rachael Mghambi
REG: P402/0964/2017
To the Kenya national examination council for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of diploma in library and information science.

DECLARATION
I, Malogho Rachael Mghambi, student at the University of Nairobi, diploma course in library and information science with Registration Number P402/0963/2017, has satisfactorily completed research requirements for the award of Diploma in Library and Information Science. The work embodied in this project is original and has not been submitted in part or in full for another diploma of this or any other University.

Signature: _________________Date: ___________________
Malogho Rachael Mghambi
P402/0964/2017
Approved by the Supervisor:
Signature: _________________Date: ____________________
Mr. Kimita Waweru
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to express my special thanks to my lecturer/supervisor, Mr. Kimita Waweru for giving me the golden opportunity to conduct this project, which I took as a learning opportunity. He also provided guidance and support wherever necessary and was patient with me during this limited time frame. Secondly, I would like to thank my friends Dedan and Anastacia, whom I’ve closely worked with during the course of this project. Also worth mentioning is my family, who provided motivation and consistent support. Finally, I would like to thank the Almighty God for all that he has done in helping make this project possible.

DEDICATIONTo my family, friends and lecturers for the love and support during this study.

ABSTRACT
This research was carried out at the McMillan memorial library. The specific objectives of the study were as follows: To find out how often the library organize their information materials, To identify the methods used to organize library materials, To identify types of materials found in the library, To identify the categories of staff involved in organizing of library materials.

In chapter one illustrates the background information of the library under study aim of the study, statement of the problem, objectives, rationale for justification, significance of the study and scope.

Chapter two dwelt with the literature review, chapter three shows the research methodology, and finally chapter four contains the data analysis, presentations, recommendations and conclusion.

Table of Contents TOC o “1-3” h z u Table of Contents PAGEREF _Toc526273008 h iCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc526273009 h 1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc526273010 h 11.0 Historical Background PAGEREF _Toc526273011 h 11.1 Definition PAGEREF _Toc526273012 h 11.2 Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc526273013 h 21.3 Aim of the Study PAGEREF _Toc526273014 h 21.4 Objectives of the study PAGEREF _Toc526273015 h 21.5 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc526273016 h 31.6 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc526273017 h 3CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc526273018 h 4LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc526273019 h 42.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526273020 h 42.1 Brief History of the MacMillan Library PAGEREF _Toc526273021 h 42.2 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc526273022 h 52.3 Information Resources found in the Library PAGEREF _Toc526273023 h 52.3.1 Dictionaries PAGEREF _Toc526273024 h 62.3.2 Encyclopedias PAGEREF _Toc526273025 h 62.3.3 Academic Books PAGEREF _Toc526273026 h 62.3.4 Journals PAGEREF _Toc526273027 h 62.3.5 Newspapers PAGEREF _Toc526273028 h 62.4 Organization Methods PAGEREF _Toc526273029 h 62.4.1 Cataloguing PAGEREF _Toc526273030 h 72.4.2 Library Classification PAGEREF _Toc526273031 h 72.4.3 Shelving PAGEREF _Toc526273032 h 82.5 Challenges encountered in organizing of information materials PAGEREF _Toc526273033 h 82.6 Library Personnel PAGEREF _Toc526273034 h 92.7 Users/Customers PAGEREF _Toc526273035 h 92.8 Policies and Procedures that govern the library PAGEREF _Toc526273036 h 102.9 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc526273037 h 10CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc526273038 h 11RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc526273039 h 113.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc526273040 h 113.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc526273041 h 113.2 Population PAGEREF _Toc526273042 h 123.3 Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc526273043 h 123.3.1 Primary Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc526273044 h 123.3.2 Secondary Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc526273045 h 133.4 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc526273046 h 14CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc526273047 h 154.0 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc526273048 h 154.1 Organizing of information resource. PAGEREF _Toc526273049 h 154.2 Research findings PAGEREF _Toc526273050 h 154.3 Comments PAGEREF _Toc526273051 h 164.5 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc526273052 h 16Appendix 1 PAGEREF _Toc526273053 h 17Research Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc526273054 h 17REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc526273055 h 20
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.0 Historical BackgroundThe MacMillan Memorial Library is situated along Banda Street in the Nairobi County. It became operational on the 15th of June, 1931 during Kenya’s colonial era. It was built by the wife of Sir Northrup McMillan, one of Kenya’s most mysterious settlers, in his honor (Mangat, 2010).

It was the axis around which modern Nairobi evolved with the law courts directly in front of it and other buildings coming up around it such as the Bank of Baroda, the New Stanley Hotel, the railway headquarters and station, the Royal College of East Africa (today’s University of Nairobi) and the Parliament buildings. McMillan Memorial Library was originally meant to serve the White community in the then racially segregated country (Mangat, 2010).
The library has undergone significant changes since it went operational. A noteworthy event was in the year 1948. The management took note of a practice undertaken by libraries located in Great Britain whereby they established special libraries for children. The McMillan Library decided to follow suite and made its own library for children. Another notable event is the change of management. The City Council of Nairobi took over in 1962, a year before independence, and has been the head of management since then.

1.1 DefinitionIn his book, Librarians Book of List, George Aberhantin states that a library is a collection of resources in a variety of formats that is organized by information professionals and other experts who provide convenient physical bibliographic or intellectual access and offers targeted services and programs. He also states that the aim of organizing and using these resources is to educate, inform or entertain a variety of users and stimulate learning among people and for the advancement of society as a whole.

1.2 Statement of the ProblemAs stated above, the purpose of the library is to provide information services and resources so as to meet the information needs of people. However, the Macmillan Memorial Library is faced with a challenge; namely, the retrieval of information due to lack of adequate organization resources. This has led to wastage of time whenever the librarian or public user tries to access or retrieve information when needed for a specific purpose and time. This automatically leads to frustration an even loss of revenue (when it comes to the borrowing of books).

1.3 Aim of the StudyThis study aims to:
Evaluate the current methods of resource organization being used by the library
Discover the factors that lead to difficulty when it comes to retrieval of information
Observe various organization strategies being utilized by other libraries and their effects
Define, formulate and propose the best strategies in which these problematic factors can be eliminated or resolved
Identify the resources needed to facilitate the proposed strategies (such as time, expertise and monetary resources).

1.4 Objectives of the studyThe main objective is to come up with a lasting solution for the organization problem being faced by MacMillan Library. The specific objectives are to:
Determine the routine used by the library for organizing its information resources
Identify the organization methods used
Identify the various types of materials used (such as journals, magazines and academic books)
Determine the various staff involved in the organization of information resources.

1.5 Research QuestionsWhat kind of information resources are found within the library?
How often does the library organize its information resources?
What order is used for this organization?
What challenges do the staff members face when organizing resources?
What challenges do the library management face?
Has the library tried to mitigate these challenges in the past?
What observations have been raised by members of the public?
Has the staff or members of the public suggested various resolutions to these challenges?
1.6 Significance of the StudyThe study carries great significance in that it takes a deep look at how a library organizes its information resources. It seeks to provide a logical understanding of the practices used by libraries in order to manage itself and provide quality services to members of the public. By observing and analyzing the challenges faced by the library, it provides the knowledge and reasons as to why certain libraries opt for specific challenges as compared to others as well as benefits to be enjoyed.

CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.0 IntroductionThe literature review is simply an evaluation of the relevant literature. It gives a basis of the research.

2.1 Brief History of the MacMillan LibraryWhen it opened its doors to the world, it aimed for the following:
To establish, develop and maintain a reference library
To establish, develop and maintain a circulating library service responsible for the circulation of books to any part of East Africa.

To organize, promote and encourage the three-fold functions of libraries (cultural, vocational and recreational)
To be a leading library in the East African Region
To provide a reading room containing an adequate supply of the latest newspapers and magazines.

The library would be open on weekdays for the entire day (including lunch hour) while Saturdays saw the library open for only half the day. At the same time, there was an annual subscription fee of thirty-five (Kes. 35) for borrowing one book at a time within Nairobi. Those outside the Nairobi borders paid forty Kenya shillings (Kes. 40). Children under the age of sixteen (16) years paid ten Kenya shillings (Kes. 10) regardless of their place of residence. Today, it serves an average of one thousand (1000) users per day, in conjunction with its other branches.

2.2 Conceptual FrameworkThe conceptual framework below shows the factors that have led to the decline of library customers in recent times.

10477522733000428625417831Lack of financial support
00Lack of financial support

33242251612902390775161290
2390775428625476250228600Lack of proper equipment
0Lack of proper equipment

4419600438785Low Success in Customers visiting the Library
Low Success in Customers visiting the Library

240030022987050482529845Lack of proper policy
0Lack of proper policy

3343275154305542925259080Shortage of proper personnel
0Shortage of proper personnel

4448175316865Dependent Variables
0Dependent Variables
2400300145415
571500317500Inadequate Space
0Inadequate Space

838200241935Independent Variables
0Independent Variables
238125089535
Fig 1.1 Conceptual Framework showing the current factors and their impact on the library’s success
2.3 Information Resources found in the LibraryThere are various kinds of information media to be found at the library. These include printed documentation such as journals, encyclopedias, magazines and newspapers among others. The library also contains digital media that includes information stored on compact disks (CDs).

2.3.1 DictionariesDictionaries are readily available in the library and are often used by users, especially during research, when they need clarification on meanings of specific words or phrases.

2.3.2 EncyclopediasLike dictionaries, encyclopedias are used to gain insight on various entities. However, they are more specific and give an in-depth knowledge and understanding.
2.3.3 Academic BooksThese books are used for academic purposes. They include textbooks and other documentations that are used at primary, secondary and university levels.
2.3.4 JournalsJournals are usually published throughout various time intervals throughout the year. They can be either periodicals or serials.

2.3.5 NewspapersNewspapers are a source of information that focus on current of either a particular region or the world. They are printed either daily or weekly.

2.4 Organization MethodsIn order to quickly and easily access information, libraries must organize its resources in a manner that promotes easy retrieval and orderly sequence. The benefits of organizing these resources in such a manner are:
There is fast and easy retrieval of information material due to materials being well arranged.

A user’s time is saved. Since there is a systematic manner in which materials are arranged, a user does not waste time wondering how and where to locate desired material.

There is ease of use for librarians to assign new and returned documentation material.

There is increased revenue. Because users are easily able to access reading material, there will be rise in borrowing, thus more income for the library.

The MacMillan memorial library uses different methods to organize information material. These include:
2.4.1 Cataloguing
Cataloguing- this is the process of describing of information materials found in a library where by catalogues are produced at the end which are used as retrieval tools to help the users to easily identify and locate information materials.

There are two types of cataloguing namely:
Descriptive and subject cataloguing respectively.Descriptive cataloguing-. This is the process of describing the physical feature of an information material e.g. A book to determine the headings or what entries are to be represented on the catalogue.

Subject Heading- this can be said to be a collection of terms that indicate a specific subject all subjects are entered in a catalogue.

2.4.2 Library Classification This is the process of arranging and organizing of library materials on shelves or entries of a catalogue by deciding the main subject and related subjects of an information material and indicating them the most suitable notation obtained from a classification scheme.

Classification systems in public libraries have got several merits towards the users and workers in the libraries. Classification helps in:
Easy finding of the desired information materials by directing users to the place of a book and the shelf where the item is found. It also collocates additional items on the same or related subjects.

Find out what collections the library has on and a particular subject.
This is the process of arranging, grouping, coding and organizing library documentation on shelves or entries of a catalogue, bibliography and index according to their subject in a systematic, logical and helpful order by way of assigning them call numbers using a library classification system so that users can find them as quickly and easily as possible. The benefits of classification are that:
Users can browse on the shelves to find information materials, discover the location of a book and its shelf and also discover additional items on the same or related subject
Users can discover what documents the library contains on certain subjects
Librarians can assign a classification or call number in correlation with the subject headings.

2.4.3 ShelvingThis is the arrangement of information materials on shelves in a systematic and orderly manner. It is considered standard practice for librarians to shelve library materials within 24 hours of return. The MacMillan arranges its library materials according to alphabetical order, author’s last name, and genre and by audience (such as children or adults).

2.5 Challenges encountered in organizing of information materialsThe MacMillan Library also suffers similar challenges, many of which are also faced by libraries in other third world counties. They include:
Lack of support from the government, despite being managed by the Nairobi City Council
Being poorly equipped when it comes to organization of its materials and resources
Inadequate space to accommodate all information materials in the library
Personnel shortage especially when it comes to manage the day to day activities of organizing library materials
Lack of policies, procedures and guidelines for its employees and customers.

2.6 Library Personnel
The library contains several members of staff at different levels. They are:
Librarians – This person has been academically trained to work in a library as a professional. He/She provides access to information and sometimes social or technical programming. Furthermore, this person is also responsible for providing instructions on information literacy.

Library Assistants – Also academically trained, these are paraprofessional staff employed in a library. They oversee the operation of the library duties such as catalogues of information materials.

Library Attendants – These are non-professional staff members. They have not been academically trained, but they are responsible for duties such as shelving of books and other materials. Their duties are assigned mainly by the library assistant.

2.7 Users/CustomersThe users generally consist of the general public. They visit the library with the aim of seeking information. They are allowed to borrow information material and return them no later than a specific agreed date. The user groups are:
Children
Teenagers/Young Adults
Adults
The Elderly
People with special needs (persons with disabilities)
People with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds
Foreigners.

2.8 Policies and Procedures that govern the libraryIn order for a library to conduct its operations successfully, it needs a set of rules, regulations and guidelines upon which its employees as well as its customers must adhere to. Furthermore, these rules seek to protect the library employees and property.

Unfortunately, as stated previously, the McMillan does not contain such policies and procedures with which its members can adhere to, thus becoming another challenge.
2.9 ConclusionTo conclude, there is now an understanding of how the MacMillan Library works. We also have an understanding of the challenges faced and the reasons behind them. The next chapter shall focus on how to acquire the information needed so as to formulate appropriate strategies that can be implemented to aid the library.

CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.0 IntroductionThis chapter will look at the method used to conduct the research for this study. It shall describe in detail the research design to be used as well as the methods of collecting information.

3.1 Research DesignA research design is required because it makes easier the flow of various research performances. making research well and orderly as possible gathering adequate information with less effort, time and money. Good design should always be easily modified, suitable, well planned and economical.
This study shall make the use of a case study because it’s comprehensive a specific research problem. It is used to clearly define a broad field of research into easy researchable approaches. (Kothari, 2004).

The benefits to be enjoyed are as follows:
It simplifies complicated concepts.

It improves how one thinks, helps in expanding tolerance for view of the same matter,
It exhibits the people taking part in the research to real life situations which they are otherwise difficult.

The data collected is always inexhaustible .

3.2 PopulationThe population involved will be the staff members of the library and its clients. This group of people is where information shall be collected through use of techniques such as observation.

The research shall make use of a random sampling method. To be specific, it shall use a non-probability sampling, specifically convenience sampling. This technique makes use of a population that is readily available. This means that anyone within the population can be used to collect information.

The information required shall only be collected with the consent of the participants/population. If they do not consent, they will not be pressured into submitting information, nor will it be collected without their approval.3.3 Data CollectionFor data collection, there are two kinds of data that need focus: primary data and secondary data. Primary data is data that is collected afresh for the first time and is original in character. Secondary data is data that has already been collected by someone else and which has already been passed through the statistical process (Kothari, 2004). Collection of primary data shall make use of observation. The collection of secondary data shall rely on collection of company information as well as client information.

3.3.1 Primary Data CollectionThis study will make use of various forms of collecting primary data.

Observation – Observation will be used for collection of this data. This approach involves researchers using all of their senses to examine people in natural settings or naturally occurring situations.

Observation involves:
Prolonged engagement in a setting or social situation
Clearly expressed, self-conscious notations of how observing is done
Methodical and tactical improvisation in order to develop a full understanding of the setting of interest
Imparting attention in ways that is in some sense ‘standardized’
Recording one’s observations.

The advantages of using observation for data collection are:
It is very simple in that it does not require much (if any) technical knowledge
It serves as a basis for forming a hypothesis
The observer can directly check the accuracy of what is being observed and compare it with previous findings.

Questionnaires – For those who cannot be interviewed, questionnaires shall be used instead. It is practical for data collection because:
It can be filled at any time the convenience of those who fill it
It collects large amounts of information from a large number of people in a short period of time
It is cost effective.

3.3.2 Secondary Data CollectionHere, the information will help to understand how to implement the strategies as per the library’s requirements. It also helps to determine the levels of access the various staff members have, as well as the access rights of its customers. The information on clients shall also play a major role when it comes to choosing which methods are the best for implementing the strategies. The advantages of using these techniques are:
It saves time as it is shows already published material
It is economical as it saves on expenses and effort
It provides a basis for comparison for data collected by the researcher
It helps with understanding of the problem.

Chances are high that there is already a broad amount of information available in relation to the concerned study.

3.4 ConclusionAt the end of this chapter, a research design has been chosen and data collection techniques have been established. This gives a basis on how the research shall be conducted, the population to be used to obtain information and finally the techniques to be used to acquire it. As mentioned before, gathering information and carefully analyzing it shall give insight on how to formulate the proper strategies needed to help the library’s current situation.

CHAPTER FOUR4.0 Data AnalysisAfter collecting data from the respondents in McMillan memorial library, I analyzed them as follows.

In McMillan memorial library, there are different sections within the organization which deal with information materials.

Sections Population No. of respondents
East Africana 4 4
Periodicals 3 1
Cataloguing 2 1
Reference section 3 2
Post-graduate 2 2
Fig. 4.0 shows the total number of the correspondents who participated in the activity.

4.1 Organizing of information resource.
I visited the sections and was able to interview and observe the on goings of the library. I collected data from the questionnaires and the results reviewed that there is a challenge in organizing of information materials in the library.

4.2 Research findings
During the study I found out that the library doesn’t have and elaborate or exhaustive organizing of library materials policy. The staff at the library from various sections identified areas in which needed improvements. I also found out that most of the staff I the library didn’t have adequate skills to handle information material hence being reluctant in arranging and organizing the information materials.

4.3 CommentsRegardless that organizing of information material is essential for every library to ease retrieval of information. Most public libraries don’t give priority to organize their materials in an orderly manner hence being a challenge to both the staff and their clients. Lack of enough personnel I the library to help in the organizing of information materials.

4.5 Recommendations
From the study the following recommendation were noted so as to improve the organization of materials in the library.
Hire more employees to help in the organizing of information in the library.

State a clear and detailed library organization policy.

Create more space for storage of information materials.

Add more equipment e.g. shelves to enhance proper organizing of information material.

Appendix 1Research QuestionnaireDear respondent,
My name is Rachael M. Malogho, a student at the University of Nairobi undertaking a diploma course in library and information science. I am carrying out a research in “organization of information resources” case study of the McMillan memorial library. This tool is part of the fulfillment of the diploma course at the University.

This questionnaire is intended to gather information in organization of information materials at the McMillan library Nairobi.

1. State your gender. (Tick in the appropriate box)
MALE
FEMALE
2. What is your AGE?
18-25 YRS
26-35 YRS
35 and Above
3. What kind of information materials are found in the library? (List below)
…………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………….

4. How often does the library organize its information materials? (Tick in the appropriate box)
Daily basis
Weekly
Monthly
Not sure
5. What challenges do the staff members face when organizing information materials? (List below)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
6. Has the library tried to mitigate these challenges (mentioned above) in the past?
Yes
No
Not sure
7. What observations have been raised by the member of the public? (List below)
…………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………..

8. has the staff or members of the public suggested various resolutions to these challenges? (Tick in the appropriate box)
Yes
No
9. Is there a policy that governs the organization of information materials? Tick in the appropriate box)
Yes
No
Not sure
Thank you for taking part of this survey!!!
Please note the results will be used to improve the organizing techniques in public libraries.

REFERENCESMaria Magher, 2018, June 25, What is the meaning of Conceptual Framework in Research, retrieved from https://classroom.synonym.com/meaning-conceptual-framework-research-6664512.html, Classroom Synonym
Rupi Mangat, 2010, May 3, Slow Death of Library that McMillan Built, retrieved from http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/magazine/Slow-death-of-library-that-McMillan-built/434746-910652-vufo1l/index.html, The East African
Jeane W, 1999, Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services, Columbia University Press, New York-USA, ISBN: 9780231529280
Gerring, J. (2004). What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for? The American Political Science Review, 98(2), 341-354. retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4145316, JSTOR
Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, 2010, Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks – CA, ISBN-13: 978-1412956703
Stake, Robert E., 1995, The Art of Case Study Research, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA: ISBN-13: 978-0803957671
Yin, Robert K., 2003, Case Study Research: Design and Theory: Applied Social Research Methods Series, no. 5. 3rd edition, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, ISBN: 9780803920583
Greenhalgh, Trisha, 2015, Case Study Evaluation: Past, Present and Future Challenge, Emerald Group Publishing, Bingley, U.K, ISBN: 978-1-78441-063-6
C. R. Kothari, 2004, Research Methodology – Methods and Techniques (Second Revised Edition), New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi – India, ISBN (13): 978-81-224-288-1
Muthende Nduucu, 2013, March 28, The McMillan Memorial Library 80 Years Later, retrieved from https://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2013/03/28/the-mcmillan-memorial-library-80-years-later_c755016, The Star, Kenya