Benefits and challenges of adopting Agile Name of the Student Name of the University Author’s Note Table of Contents Chapter 1- Introduction 3 1

Benefits and challenges of adopting Agile
Name of the Student
Name of the University

Author’s Note
Table of Contents
Chapter 1- Introduction 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Research Aim 4
1.3 Research objectives 4
1.4 Research questions 5
1.5 Background of the topic 5
1.7 Rationale of the study 5
1.8 Purpose of the Study 6
1.9 Structure of the study 6
1.10 Summary 8
Chapter 2- Literature Review 9
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Agile methodology 9
2.3 Agile practices and methods 10
2.4 Benefits of agile project methodology 12
2.5 Scenarios where agile project methodology is useful 13
2.6 Challenges of agile project methodology 14
2.7 Scenario where agile project methodology can fail 15
2.8 Conclusion 16
Chapter 3- Research Methodology 17
3.1 Introduction 17
3.2 Research Philosophy 17
3.2.1 Justification for selection of the selected philosophy 18
3.3 Research Approach 18
3.3.1 Justification for the selection the selected approach 19
3.4 Research design 19
3.4.1 Justification for the selected research design 20
3.5 Data collection method 20
3.5.1 Data sources: Primary and secondary 20
3.5.2 Data techniques: Qualitative and quantitative 21
3.6 Population and sample 22
3.6.1 Sampling technique 22
3.6.2 Sample size 22
3.7 Ethical considerations 22
3.8 Research limitations 23
3.9 Time horizons 23
3.10 Summary 24
Chapter 4 -Results 25
4.1 Introduction 25
4.2 Data Analysis 25
4.3 Summary 40
Chapter 5- Discussion 41
5.1 Introduction 41
5.2 Discussion 41
5.3 Summary 43
Chapter 6-Critical review 45
Chapter 7-Conclusion 48
7.1. Conclusion 48
7.2 Recommendations 48
References 50

Chapter 1- Introduction
1.1 Introduction
Frequent changes in the field of project environment have generally made the utilization of traditional methods of project management quite difficult for the project managers. The traditional methods of project management help in emphasizing the development of a number of plans as well as on installation of control mechanism by making sure that there is no deviation (Serrador; Pinto, 2015). Agile methodology has been recommended as one of the alternatives to the traditional project management approaches. With the help of agile project methodology, the project teams are capable of utilizing both iterative as well as flexible approaches for the project implementation which further helps to adjust the project plans with the variations that occur within a project environment (Spundak, 2014). The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the benefits as well as challenges of adopting agile methodology. Agile project management methodology helps in presenting a number of benefits including minimization in the rework cost, fast project completion as well as assists in providing greater satisfaction to the customers (Rasnacis;Berzisa, 2017). However, the utilization of agile project methodology is limited by the challenges including the problems in scheduling tasks, in managing knowledge as well as in managing multi-site projects. The challenges can generally be surmounted by blending the various elements of traditional project management within the agile methods.
1.2 Research Aim
This particular study mainly aims to examine the benefits and challenges of adopting agile project management methodology. The topic will generally involve analysis of the challenges as well as benefits of agile methodology in order to make proper decision making regarding the adoption of agile methodology. A number of journals as well as articles are reviewed by the researcher for analyzing both the issues as well as the benefits that a project can achieve by adopting the agile project management methodology.
1.3 Research objectives
As per the research aim, research objective framing will be undertaken so that further idea about the research topic can be considered. The research topics are generally utilized for making a proper subdivision of the research topics which assists in categorizing the topics of the research into an appropriate form. The list of objectives for successfully achieving the project aim are listed below:
• To examine the benefits that can be gained by adopting the agile project management methodology.
• To recognize the challenges that is faced due to the adoption of agile methodology
• To analyze whether the adoption of agile is advantageous for the projects
1.4 Research questions
Research questions are quite helpful in giving a clear idea about the research topic in a very much detailed manner. The list of research questions that are provided below helps in laying proper emphasis on the area of analysis that is helpful in gaining significant as well as detailed information related to the research topic. The research questions are listed below:
• How is the adoption of an agile project management methodology beneficial?
• What are the challenges that occur due to the adoption of agile methodology?
• Does the adoption of agile methodology is beneficial for the projects?
1.5 Background of the topic
In the early 1990s, the project managers get easily frustrated with the long lead times and with the decision that is made in the project couldn’t get changed later. John Kern, who was an aerospace engineer, started meeting informally for developing the software much more formally without the documentation and process overhead of waterfall as well as other techniques (Hoda& Murugesan, 2016). It is found that this frustration of the project managersis considered to be unproductive in the context of the software development activities. In order to resolve this challenges and issues, agile project methodology was developed that assists in providing a number of benefits to the software development team and generally act as an alternative to traditional project management methodology.
1.7 Rationale of the study
The main reason of selecting the project is to identify the benefits and challenges that are associated with the agile project management methodology. It is found that agile project methodology provides number of benefits including minimization in the rework cost, fast project completion as well as assists in providing greater satisfaction to the customers. Whereas the challenges that are generally faced due to the adoption of agile methodology includes problems in scheduling tasks, in managing knowledge as well as in managing multi-site projects.
1.8 Purpose of the Study
The selection of research topic mainly focuses on the adoption of agile project methodology as an alternative to traditional approaches of a project. It is found that projects nowadays are utilizing agile methodology as an alternative method for utilizing both the iterative as well as flexible approaches in the implementation of project (Hobbs & Petit, 2017). The research aims to examine the challenges and benefits of adopting the agile project management methodology. In this particular study, the researcher will generally focus on the challenges and benefit that is gained with the adoption of agile methodology within the project.
1.9 Structure of the study
The researcher generally categorizes the research topic so that the topic of the research can be reflected as well as observed in a very much detailed manner. Depending on the five chapters, the entire content of the research is divided into the following:
Chapter 1: Introduction
In the introduction part, the basic information about the research topic is provided so that a reader can easily understand as well as get a proper view about the topic of the research. In this particular chapter, the benefits, as well as challenges of adopting agile, is provided briefly. Moreover, research objectives, research aim as well as research questions are listed for providing a detailed and clear understanding of the research topic.
Chapter 2: Research context and questions
In this particular chapter, proper discussion on the research context as well as research questions are done in order to give proper detailed information about the research topic so that the analysis can be done in an very much detailed manner.
Chapter 3: Literature review
In the literature review chapter, various journals, as well as articles, are reviewed in order to get detailed ideas as well as understanding on the topic. In this chapter, the researcher uses various literature sources and tried to evaluate the various concept in a much-standardized manner.
Chapter 4: Research Methodology
Research processes are quite helpful in gaining a better collection of information related to the topic of the research. The research methodology, chapter us helpful in guiding the entire path which can further lead to a better stud of the research topic and can be helpful in gathering proper details about the research topic. In this chapter, adequate research philosophy, approach, research design is used for making a better analysis on the topic.
Chapter 5: Results
In this chapter, proper information, as well as data related to the research topic, is gathered for analyzing the benefits and challenges of adopting agile methodology. It is found that proper analysis is done on the topic for gaining proper knowledge on the topic of the research. The data analysis is generally done by utilizing a number of techniques as well as methods that will further assist in providing a proper understanding regarding the topic to the researchers.
Chapter 6: Discussion
In this chapter, proper discussion on the research topic is done so that the research objectives and aim of the project is achieved successfully. Proper discussion on the results of the research topic is elaborated.
Chapter 7: Critical evaluation
In this chapter, critical evaluation is done on the challenges and benefits of adopting agile for providing clear and detailed information about the topic of the research.
Chapter 8: Conclusion and recommendations
In this chapter, conclusion, as well as recommendations, are presented that provided a detailed overview of the research topic. As per the objectives of the research, the researcher generally tries to determine the success level of the entire topic in order to define the entire linkage of the research objectives accordingly.
1.10 Summary
Agile project management methodology is one of the iterative approaches that are helpful in managing the software development projects that generally focuses on continuous releases and generally assists in incorporating the feedback of the customers with every iteration. In this chapter, the paper focuses on research objectives, aim and research questions for getting a detailed and clear view of the research topic.
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Chapter 2- Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
It is stated by Conforto et al. (2014) that agile project management is one of the iterative approaches for planning as well as guiding the various processes pf the project. It is found that agile project methodology generally assists in breaking the entire project into number of small pieces so that the entire work of the project can be completed in various work sessions that generally run from the design phase of the project to the quality assurance phase. It is opined by Ariza, Mozo and Quintero (2018) that agile project methodologies assist in providing number of benefits to the organizations including the quality of the product, customer satisfaction, team morale, enhanced collaboration, customized team structures as well as improved performance, project control, project predictability and more. In spite of the advantages, it is found that agile project methodology has some limitations that include difficulty in measuring progress, chances of scope creep, budget issue and more.
This specific chapter generally reflects on the analysis that is mainly done in order to identify the benefits as well as challenges that are mainly associated with the adoption of agile project management methodology. With the help of the benefits and challenges, the researcher can be able to identify situations where the agile project methodology will be useful. In addition to this, the chapter uses number of models as well as theories on the research topics so that it can be used in order to undertake proper analysis on the results.
2.2 Agile methodology
According to Frankova, Drahosova and Balco (2016), agile project management is one of the approaches that is generally dependent on delivering the requirements of the project quite incrementally as well as iteratively within the entire project life cycle. It is found that agile project methodology generally helps in minimizing complexity by breaking the entire long cycle in which the entire project is executed. It is stated by Elsayed, Alharbi and Saba (2015) that agile project management methodology is mainly used in order to manage the work of the project quite efficiently so that the entire work of the project of the project can be effectively delivered within the expected time with proper quality (Shastri, Hoda& Amor, 2017).In addition to this it is found that the team who are associated with agile project management methodology generally assists in increasing the ability of work in order to effectively managing the data in a proper visual way so that the details of the project can be managed quite easily.
2.3 Agile practices and methods
Over the past years, agile methodologies have emerged which is mainly followed by the various industries. It is found that while this method generally helps in sharing much of the same philosophy, practices as well as characteristics, they generally have some significant terminology as well tactics. According to Kuhl (2014), with the popularity as well as acceptance of agile project management methodology within the industries, number of practices as well as methodology have emerged. The different practices of agile project methodology are mainly illustrated below:
Agile scrum methodology
Scrum is considered as one of the lightweight agile frameworks that can be utilized in order to manage as well as control the incremental as well as iterative projects of different types. According to Mahadevan, Kettinger and Meservy (2015), this method is generally utilized for completing the work of the team closely so that the team can have the ability to identify as well as prioritize the product-based backlog. It is identified that product backlog mainly comprises of number of requirements, features, bug fixes and more. It is stated by Suetin(2016) that as priorities are being driven by the owner of the product as well as different cross functional teams who are generally assembled for creating as well as delivering results during the process of successive sprints.
Lean methodology
It is stated by Hornstein (2015) that lean software development is one of the iterative agile methodology that was generally developed by Mary and Tom Poppendieck. It is found that this method generally focuses on the team that assists in delivering proper value to the customers as well as on the mechanism efficiency for delivering the entire value. The principles of lean methodology generally include waste elimination, learning amplification, fast delivery, team empowerment, integrity development and more. In addition to this, it is opined by Joslin and Muller (2015) that lean methodology is quite helpful in eliminating wastes with the selection of truly significant features by putting it within the system and then prioritizing it.
Extreme programming method
According to Kuhl (2014), XP is originally developed by Kent Beck which is one of the authors of the Agile Manifesto. XP is generally based on four different values that is mainly based on simplicity, feedback, courage as well as on different practices that includes small releases, simple design, planning game, pair programming, customer acceptance tests, refactoring, test driven development, metaphor and more.
Dynamic system development method
Dynamic system development method is mainly developed in the year 1994 which is one framework of agile project methodology that generally utilizes the MoSCoW scope prioritization into project time and budget (Lin et al., 2014). It is found that it generally based on eight different principles that include proper focus the needs of the business, timely delivery, proper collaboration, improper compromise of project quality, building improper firm foundations, demonstration of control, communicate clearly and more.?
2.4 Benefits of agile project methodology
It is stated by Crowder and Friess (2015) that as per the CHAOS report which is presented by the Standish Group, it is analyzed that 31.1% of the projects mainly get cancelled before the completion of the project. Moreover, the results generally reflect that 52.7% of the project generally had budgets that generally overshoots over 189%. The studies revealed that the waterfall project management methodology is one of the factors that generally causes failure within the project.
It is reflected by Hobbs and Petit (2017) out of five key factors that contributes within the project failure, four of them are generally associated with the model of waterfall that generally includes the inability for dealing with the requirements that are changing and the problems which are mainly associated with late integration. This finding generally reveals the shortcomings that are associated with the model of waterfall and thus the major of the industry mainly moves towards the implementation of agile project management methodology.
It is found that there are number of benefits that the companies generally achieve by adopting the agile project management methodology. It is stated by Hoda and Murugesan (2016) that agile helps in providing number of opportunities to the stakeholders for team engagement before each sprint. It is found that by involving the client within high degree of team collaboration so that proper opportunities to the team members can be provided so that they can be able to understand the vision of the clients quite effectively (Conforto et al., 2014). It is found that in order to deliver the working of the software effectively generally assists in enhancing the trust of the stakeholders for the ability of the team in order to deliver high quality of working software that further helps them in encouraging them to be deeply get engaged within the work of the project.
On the other hand, it is opined by Elsayed, Alharbi and Saba (2015) that an agile approach assists in providing unique opportunities to the clients so that they can successfully engaged within the entire project starting from prioritization of features to the iteration planning as well as session review for software development that generally consists of number of features. However, it is found that the clients need to understand that the work that are done in exchange to the added benefit of transparency. In addition to this, it is identified by Kuhl (2014) when the team needs to remain focussed on the delivery an agreed to subset of the features during each iteration in order to provide opportunities so that reprioritization of the product backlog can be done effectively. It is found that new or changed backlog items can generally be planned for the iteration which further assists in giving the opportunity for introducing the changes within a few weeks.
In addition to this, it is stated by Mahadevan, Kettinger and Meservy (2015) that by allowing the clients of the project to determine the priority of the features it is identified that the team members are able to understand what is important for the client’s business and how the features are delivered in order to give proper business value. Moreover, it is found that by breaking the entire project into number of manageable units, the project team generally faces lot of issues in high quality development, collaboration as well as testing (Hornstein, 2015). In addition to this, it is found that by building as well as conducting the procedure of testing, it is found that proper review is generally undertaken during the process of iteration it is found that the quality of the project generally gets improved by finding as well as fixing the defects very much effectively and then identification of expectation that mismatches quite effectively.
2.5 Scenarios where agile project methodology is useful
It is found that the present world of business, the agile project management methodology can generally be adapted quite technically for all the types of the projects. Nevertheless, it is found that the usefulness of agile project management methodology is mainly dependent on scenarios that are mainly reflected. It is stated by Lin et al. (2014) that the projects that have dynamic requirements mainly faces brisk completion and, in those projects, the requirements are not clear though the project is. In that situation, agile project management methodology assists in defining the working model to the customers so as to perceive as well as confirm.
It is found that agile project management methodology is mainly suitable for the projects that have iterative nature. In addition to this, it is opined by Crowder and Friess (2015) that the projects that generally depends on the interactive philosophy as well as active user involvement must use agile project methodology as both the user as well as product owners plays a great role in deriving the entire project outcome. Moreover, the project that have skilled team can use agile project management methodology as agile methodology assists in delivering the needed changes in a very much fast as well as efficient manner and thus it is very much imperative to skilled team.
2.6 Challenges of agile project methodology
It is stated by Rasnacis and Berzisa (2017) that last edition of the survey that was conducted on the agile development helps in revealing that around ninety four percent of the IT organizations generally surveyed on the implementation process that is mainly based on the agile project management methodology. Though it is one of the impressive methodologies, still it is not considered appropriate for all the software development projects. There are number of challenges that the organizations face due to the use of agile project management methodology.
According to Hoda and Murugesan (2016) agile is mainly designed in order to thrive on the cases where the stakeholders as well as development generally happens which generally raises a challenge for the geographically distributed teams. It is found that agile also helps in emphasizing on various periodic reporting that are very much crucial for creating proper feedback so that the progress of the project can be tracked easily. It is found that deficiency in both communication a well as technical skills can be exposed and, in such cases, agile project management methodology is not useful.
It is found that Elsayed et al. (2015), with the team size, the complexity within the agile software increases as it is quite challenging to keep each of the project developer updated about the knowledge that is mainly acquired with the help of the project team. In addition to this, it is found that the organizations that does not have efficient customer feedback procedure then it is suggested that agile project management methodology is not be helpful as it generally thrives on the feedback procedure.
2.7 Scenario where agile project methodology can fail
There are number of scenarios where the chances of failure of agile project management methodology is quite high. It is stated by that the project that generally have trust factor then the agile project management methodology will not be helpful (Ariza et al., 2018). This is because trust factor is considered as the issue of the management side which generally can lead to repercussions. It is found that agile teams are generally designed for self-managing and for that they require proper leadership for driving them. It is found that the use of agile project methodology is not suitable for the projects that have lack of leadership and generally blames the process. It is identified by Hornstein (2015) that if the team generally fails to deliver what is generally committed for iterations then the agile project management can collapse. In addition to this, agile process generally recommends helps in slipping as well as managing teams in a very much cross functional way so that the self-sufficient team can work independently without reporting task related issues and challenges.
2.8 Conclusion
It can be concluded that agile project management methodology is quite usefulfor managing the work of the team quite efficiently in order to deliver quality-based project within the appropriate time constraint. It is analyzed that agile project management helps in increasing the adaptability of the development team, assists in enhancing scalability of the projects, assists in enhancing the predictability of the agile project managers. In spite of the advantages it is found that agile project methodology generally creates number of challenges including communication within the distributed teams, stress within the team members, lack of business knowledge as well as inefficient customer feedback procedure occurrences. In addition to this, the paper also discusses the scenarios that are suitable for agile project management and the scenarios in which the project management methodology generally fails. It is found that the review that is done of the adoption of agile project management methodology generally assists in providing an idea to the project managers to select the project management methodology as per the scenario.
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Chapter 3- Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction
Research methodology is the chapter that assists in defining the most significant approach which generally requires to be adopted for attaining the complete as well as detailed results of the entire process. Lewis (2015) stated that the various concepts as well as theories that are generally adopted within the research methodology assists in providing deeper as proper analysis of the entire research topic. It is found that application of the entire research methodology assists in understanding the entire procedure which is generally adopted for analyzing the benefits and challenges in adopting the agile project management methodology. On the other hand, it is opined by Vaioleti (2016) that detailed process of the research methodology generally leads in creating number of errors within the entire research process.
3.2 Research Philosophy
It is found that in research methodology, application of the research philosophy is reflected in order to determine the appropriate manner in order to gain proper details about the entire research topic. According to Smith(2015) the entire research philosophy assists in explaining the various assumption processes that are mainly undertaken by the researchers while conducting the entire research topic properly. However, the entire thinking procedure that is needed in order to evaluate a topic for the selection of the entire research requires to quite effective and in appropriate alignment (Choy,2014). It is found that the common forms of the epistemology which is generally considered as a part of philosophy include interpretivism, realism as well as positivism.
Positivism is considered as one of the significant subjects of the philosophy that generally assists in application of the logic assists in analyzing the various facts as well as information in a quite scientific manner. It is found that although the scientific method is dominated by positivism, it generally tries to reject the metaphysics so that detailed observation as well as knowledge collection is generally enabled. On the other hand, Choy(2014) described that the interpretative study generally aims to define the things with appropriate concepts of the natural law that discards the entire scientific approach. It is found that apart from the interaction, is found that the researcher who is under the interpretative study generally takes part within data interpretation for suiting the requirements of the study (Dang;Pheng,2015). It is found that realism is considered as one of the mixed approaches of interpretative as well as positivism that generally involves within the accomplishment of both significant philosophies.
3.2.1 Justification for selection of the selected philosophy
It is found that positivism is mainly applied within the current context that further helps in analyzing the various hidden facts as well as information that are mainly related with the benefits as well as challenges of the agile project management methodology (Fletcher,2017). Apart from that, it is found that the entire study that is mainly undertaken is time-limited and so the interpretative or the realism study which was mainly discarded as the research philosophy. It is found that the entire philosophy generally assists in limiting the role of the researcher for manipulating as well as evaluating the data which generally leads to minimizations of data errors.
3.3 Research Approach
It is found that the entire research approach for the study of the topic is mainly needed so that the format that is generally needed for conducting the study generally gets revealed. It is found that proper research is mainly undertaken within the study that mainly includes inductive approach as well as deductive approach. It is found that the inductive approach is one of the studies that generally assists in studying the entire topic of research when there is enough data available on the selected topic. It is stated by Dumay and Cai(2015) that the inductive approach mainly helps in serving the purpose of the entire theory in order to develop the topic. On the other hand, it is found that deductive approach is mainly used as one of the procedures that helps in elaborating the entire practical applications of the various types of theories that is mainly studied in order to gain proper access (McCusker and Gunaydin2015). It is found that deductive approach generally aims to build proper theory that is mainly utilized for gaining the access of the entire research paper. It is found that the deductive approach generally aims to build proper theory with appropriate specifications as well as concepts on data analysis. However, it is found that as per the study that is undertaken on the research topic, proper research approach is mainly selected so that the analysis of the entire topic can be done appropriately.
3.3.1 Justification for the selection the selected approach
In the current study that is mainly undertaken on the benefits and challenges of the agile project management methodology generally reflects in order to found out both the benefits as well as challenges. It is found that there are number of benefits as well as challenges that are mainly associated with the adoption of agile project management methodology and thus in order to identify the benefits as well as challenges, it is very much important to understand the entire concept quite clearly as well as precisely (Jennings et al., 2018). However, it is found that inductive approach generally fails to be implemented within the present topic as it is identified that no new theories as well as concepts are generally emphasized by the researcher.
3.4 Research design
According to Mackey and Marsden(2015), research design id mainly used in order to explain the entire framework of the research topic that is used in the process of selection of the various analysis and collection pattern. During the procedure of data collection, it is found that a specific kind of the research is generally applied which generally assist in providing better description of the entire research design. It is found that the research design that is generally used within the entire academic research are considered to be explanatory, description as well as exploratory (Wildemuth,2016). It is found that explanatory research design id mainly used by the researchers in order to acknowledge different types of thoughts as well as ideas that are generally needed in order to complete the entire research paper successfully. Apart from that, the entire descriptive design is mainly used for defining the detailed procedure that is mainly involved with the identification of challenges as well as benefits with the adoption of the agile project management methodology.
3.4.1 Justification for the selected research design
It is found that the use of explanatory research design is mainlyprovided as it generally helps in supporting the longitudinal study that was not considered to be possible in context to the research topic. It is found that part from that, it is found that the descriptive design will be quite helpful in defining the decisions of the various clients.
3.5 Data collection method
Data collection is one of the most useful method that assists in collecting both data as well as information that helps in studying any of the research topic with appropriate details. It is stated by Vamsi Krishna Jasti andKodali(2014), that data collection methods are very much helpful in deriving the entire results into proper research processes that helps in enabling standard format of the entire research work.
3.5.1 Data sources: Primary and secondary
It is found that sources of data that are generally helpful in the penetration of the entire research that is generally needed in order to extract information as per the requirements of the project. It is found that data collection methods are mainly categorized into primary as well as secondary data collection methods which are generally helpful in providing proper materials that are helpful in gaining the details of the entire research topic. It is opined by McCusker and Gunaydin(2015) that the primary data are generally helpful in collecting the raw materials that can be properly catered as per the requirement of the research topic. It is found that the first-hand data collection methods generally require clarification about the reliability as well as validity. It is found that in case of secondary sources, the data are generally used forwidening the entire concept of the research topic that helps in enabling better study of the topic as it generally involves in more detailed description.
In the current research study, primary data sources including questionnaire is used in order to collect data and information about the benefits and challenges that are associated with the adoption of the agile project management methodology. Apart from the various literature sources that is mainly utilized in order to gain proper information with the help of various secondary sources. The various types of tools that are associated with the secondary sources mainly includes both the offline as well as online sources including the articles, books, websites, blogs and more.
3.5.2 Data techniques: Qualitative and quantitative
Qualitative data are very much helpful in recording the entire narrative form of data that can be used for adding better description about the entire research topic. It is stated by Fletcher (2017) that qualitative data generally assists in adding proper theoretical concepts within the entire practical field that generally leads in providing proper understanding about the research topic including quantitative procedure. Qualitative data on the other hand is applied as the statistical data that are very much helpful in recording the data as the large sample sizes. It is found that in the current study, SPSS is used within the research in order to undertake the entire research effectively.
3.6 Population and sample
Population is mainly defined as the number of individuals who will directly or indirectly involving or getting affected with the content of the entire research process. It is found that in the current research study, both the customers as well as the employees of the organization are considered as the population (Dumay; Cai,2015). However, it is found that the entire research cannot consider each of the employees due to smaller representation of the population which is generally considered as sample.
3.6.1 Sampling technique
Sample which is mainly considered for studying the benefits as well as challenges of adopting agile methodology is selected in order to make proper decisions. It is found that the sample for the employees are considered as a simple random sampling where no criteria of selection is utilized.
3.6.2 Sample size
It is found that sample size is mainly divided within qualitative as well as quantitative technique. It is found that in order to study the quantitative research technique, 17 employees were considered with the help of questionnaires.
3.7 Ethical considerations
The ethical considerations that are followed while undertaking the entire research is provided below:
? It is found that the researcher does not provide any type of pressure on the respondents in order to take part proper feedback procedure.
? It is found that no mental or physical harassment is mainly involved with the identities of the respondents.
? Commercial application of data is avoided is in entire research study and the entire research is strictly limited to the academic purpose only.
3.8 Research limitations
The limitations of the entire research are listed below:
? It is found that due to the cross-sectional nature of the entire study, the researcher needs to finish the entire research within the time that is provided to them
? It is found that with the budget constraint, the researcher faces number of problems within the study. It is found that lack of budget can create number of challenges.
3.9 Time horizons
It is found that the any of the research topics that are either longitudinal or cross sectional in nature is considered as one of the significant topics. It is found that within the current study, cross-sectional study is mainly adopted that generally has the limited time-period so that the Gantt chart application is found to be easier for the completion of the entire research study. The time horizon that is provided are listed below:
Main activities/ stages Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7
Topic Selection •
Data collection from secondary sources • •
Creating layout •
Literature review • • •
Formation of the research Plan • •
Selection of the Appropriate Research Techniques • •
Primary data collection • •
Analysis ; Interpretation of Data Collection • •
Findings of the Data •
Conclusion of the Study •
Formation of Rough Draft • •
Submission of Final Work • •

3.10 Summary
It is found that the present chapter helps in elaborating the various types of research tools that helps in analyzing the topic of the research quite effectively. It is found that the researcher generally tries to align the nature of the research study along with various types of available techniques so that the entire research methodology can be framed successfully. It is found that the tools that are found to be appropriate are helpful in analyzing the concepts that are associated with the benefits and challenges of adoption of the research methodology.
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Chapter 4 -Results
4.1 Introduction
In this chapter, the analysis has been conducted from the gathered data to identify the benefits and challenges of adopting agile methods or techniques. Now-a-days most of the organizations are adopting agile for development of software or application. Hence, this research has been carried out to determine the benefits that the organization have achieved through adoption of agile methodology for their business. The analysis of data in this chapter has been carried out with the help of SPSS application for the data that were gathered using online survey questionnaires. In this chapter, regression analysis has been conducted on the gathered for demonstrating the suitability of this research. This chapter illustrates the analysis reports for validation of the data gathered through the data gathering techniques.
4.2 Data Analysis
For the analysis of data being gathered through survey questionnaires to test the feasibility of this research, various hypothesis has been developed. The hypothesis has been developed to form different regression models to present the desired outcomes from this research.
Hypothesis 1:
Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference in agile methods being currently used according to the experience;
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is significant difference in agile methods being currently used according to the experience;

Regression Analysis
In this section, the regression model has been developed to determine whether there is any impact of experience on the agile methods being currently used in the organizations. For this purpose, Work experience, Duration of using Agile Methodology, Present Occupation are considered as independent variables and Currently used Agile methods as the dependent variable. The multiple regression model that has been developed for this analysis is presented as below:
Currently used Agile methods = A + B * Work experience + C * Duration of using Agile Methodology + D * Present Occupation + e
Where,
A = Intercept of the model
B = Coefficient of Work experience
C = Coefficient of Duration of using Agile Methodology
D = Coefficient of Present Occupation
The detailed results from the analysis are presented as below:
Regression Statistics
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1
1 .683a .466 .343 .816 .466 3.788 3

Model Summary
Model Change Statistics
df2 Sig. F Change
1 13 .037

a. Predictors: (Constant), Present occupation, Duration of using Agile Methodology, Working experience

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 7.573 3 2.524 3.788 .037b
Residual 8.662 13 .666
Total 16.235 16

a. Dependent Variable: Currently used Agile Methods
b. Predictors: (Constant), Present occupation, Duration of using Agile Methodology, Working experience

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 3.594 .682 5.270 .000
Working experience .174 .134 .269 1.295 .218
Duration of using Agile Methodology -.419 .183 -.467 -2.285 .040
Present occupation .190 .121 .323 1.569 .141

Coefficientsa
Model Collinearity Statistics
Tolerance VIF
1 (Constant)
Working experience .949 1.054
Duration of using Agile Methodology .981 1.020
Present occupation .967 1.034

a. Dependent Variable: Currently used Agile Methods

Coefficient Correlationsa
Model Present occupation Duration of using Agile Methodology Working experience
1 Correlations Present occupation 1.000 -.010 -.181
Duration of using Agile Methodology -.010 1.000 .138
Working experience -.181 .138 1.000
Covariances Present occupation .015 .000 -.003
Duration of using Agile Methodology .000 .034 .003
Working experience -.003 .003 .018

a. Dependent Variable: Currently used Agile Methods

Collinearity Diagnosticsa
Model Dimension Eigenvalue Condition Index Variance Proportions
(Constant) Working experience Duration of using Agile Methodology
1 1 3.465 1.000 .01 .02 .01
2 .285 3.484 .01 .68 .18
3 .190 4.266 .01 .14 .16
4 .059 7.665 .98 .16 .65
a. Dependent Variable: Currently used Agile Methods

Hypothesis 2:
Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference in agile techniques being currently used according to the experience;
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is significant difference in agile techniques being currently used according to the experience;
Regression Analysis
In this section, the regression model has been developed to determine whether there is any impact of experience on the agile techniques being currently used in the organizations. For this purpose, Work experience, Duration of using Agile Methodology, Present Occupation are considered as independent variables and Currently used Agile techniques as the dependent variable. The multiple regression model that has been developed for this analysis is presented as below:
Currently used Agile techniques = A + B * Work experience + C * Duration of using Agile Methodology + D * Present Occupation + e
Where,
A = Intercept of the model
B = Coefficient of Work experience
C = Coefficient of Duration of using Agile Methodology
D = Coefficient of Present Occupation
The detailed results from the analysis are presented as below:
Regression Statistics
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1
1 .441a .194 .008 1.180 .194 1.044 3

Model Summary
Model Change Statistics
df2 Sig. F Change
1 13 .406

a. Predictors: (Constant), Present occupation, Duration of using Agile Methodology, Working experience

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 4.363 3 1.454 1.044 .406b
Residual 18.108 13 1.393
Total 22.471 16
a. Dependent Variable: Currently used Agile techniques
b. Predictors: (Constant), Present occupation, Duration of using Agile Methodology, Working experience

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.081 .986 2.111 .055
Working experience -.100 .194 -.132 -.517 .614
Duration of using Agile Methodology .408 .265 .387 1.538 .148
Present occupation .102 .175 .148 .583 .570

Coefficientsa
Model Collinearity Statistics
Tolerance VIF
1 (Constant)
Working experience .949 1.054
Duration of using Agile Methodology .981 1.020
Present occupation .967 1.034
a. Dependent Variable: Currently used Agile techniques

Coefficient Correlationsa
Model Present occupation Duration of using Agile Methodology Working experience
1 Correlations Present occupation 1.000 -.010 -.181
Duration of using Agile Methodology -.010 1.000 .138
Working experience -.181 .138 1.000
Covariances Present occupation .031 .000 -.006
Duration of using Agile Methodology .000 .070 .007
Working experience -.006 .007 .038
a. Dependent Variable: Currently used Agile techniques

Collinearity Diagnosticsa
Model Dimension Eigenvalue Condition Index Variance Proportions
(Constant) Working experience Duration of using Agile Methodology
1 1 3.465 1.000 .01 .02 .01
2 .285 3.484 .01 .68 .18
3 .190 4.266 .01 .14 .16
4 .059 7.665 .98 .16 .65
a. Dependent Variable: Currently used Agile techniques

Hypothesis 3:
Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant benefit of using agile techniques in organizations;
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There are various benefits of using agile techniques in organizations;
Regression Analysis
In this section, the regression model has been developed to determine whether there is any benefit of using agile techniques being currently used in the organizations. For this purpose, Delivery of valuable software, Changes in organization, Competitive advantage are considered as independent variables and Benefits of using agile techniques as the dependent variable. The multiple regression model that has been developed for this analysis is presented as below:
Benefits of using Agile techniques = A + B * Delivery of valuable software + C * Changes in organization + D * Competitive advantage + e
Where,
A = Intercept of the model
B = Coefficient of Delivery of valuable software
C = Coefficient of Changes in organization
D = Coefficient of Competitive advantage
The detailed results from the analysis are presented as below:
Regression Statistics
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1
1 .331a .110 -.096 .946 .110 .535 3

Model Summary
Model Change Statistics
df2 Sig. F Change
1 13 .666

a. Predictors: (Constant), Gain competitive advantage, Changed my organization, Delivery of valuable software

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 1.435 3 .478 .535 .666b
Residual 11.624 13 .894
Total 13.059 16
a. Dependent Variable: Benefits of Agile techniques
b. Predictors: (Constant), Gain competitive advantage, Changed my organization, Delivery of valuable software

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 3.942 .929 4.243 .001
Delivery of valuable software -.224 .540 -.149 -.414 .685
Changed my organization .471 .425 .379 1.107 .288
Gain competitive advantage -.332 .413 -.258 -.803 .436

Coefficientsa
Model Collinearity Statistics
Tolerance VIF
1 (Constant)
Delivery of valuable software .531 1.883
Changed my organization .584 1.713
Gain competitive advantage .666 1.502

a. Dependent Variable: Benefits of Agile techniques

Coefficient Correlationsa
Model Gain competitive advantage Changed my organization Delivery of valuable software
1 Correlations Gain competitive advantage 1.000 -.214 -.364
Changed my organization -.214 1.000 -.489
Delivery of valuable software -.364 -.489 1.000
Covariances Gain competitive advantage .170 -.038 -.081
Changed my organization -.038 .181 -.112
Delivery of valuable software -.081 -.112 .292
a. Dependent Variable: Benefits of Agile techniques

Collinearity Diagnosticsa
Model Dimension Eigenvalue Condition Index Variance Proportions
(Constant) Delivery of valuable software Changed my organization
1 1 3.875 1.000 .00 .00 .00
2 .053 8.571 .50 .10 .39
3 .040 9.891 .47 .06 .21
4 .032 10.950 .03 .83 .40
a. Dependent Variable: Benefits of Agile techniques

Hypothesis 4:
Null Hypothesis (H0): There are no challenges associated with using agile techniques in organizations;
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There are various challenges associated with using agile techniques in organizations;
Regression Analysis
In this section, the regression model has been developed to determine whether there is any challenges of agile techniques being currently used in the organizations. For this purpose, Security, Team communication, Skills and abilities are considered as independent variables and Challenges of Agile techniques as the dependent variable. The multiple regression model that has been developed for this analysis is presented as below:
Challenges of Agile techniques = A + B * Security + C * Team communication + D * Skills and abilities + e
Where,
A = Intercept of the model
B = Coefficient of Security
C = Coefficient of Team communication
D = Coefficient of Skills and abilities
The detailed results from the analysis are presented as below:
Regression Statistics
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1
1 .276a .076 -.137 1.434 .076 .358 3

Model Summary
Model Change Statistics
df2 Sig. F Change
1 13 .784

a. Predictors: (Constant), Full utilization of skills and talent, Security, Improvements in team communication

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 2.207 3 .736 .358 .784b
Residual 26.734 13 2.056
Total 28.941 16
a. Dependent Variable: Challenges of Agile methods
b. Predictors: (Constant), Full utilization of skills and talent, Security, Improvements in team communication

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 3.012 1.721 1.750 .104
Security .330 .476 .194 .695 .500
Improvements in team communication .116 .639 .052 .181 .859
Full utilization of skills and talent -.473 .513 -.277 -.924 .373

Coefficientsa
Model Collinearity Statistics
Tolerance VIF
1 (Constant)
Security .909 1.101
Improvements in team communication .857 1.167
Full utilization of skills and talent .792 1.262

a. Dependent Variable: Challenges of Agile methods

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Coefficient Correlationsa
Model Full utilization of skills and talent Security Improvements in team communication
1 Correlations Full utilization of skills and talent 1.000 -.275 -.358
Security -.275 1.000 -.018
Improvements in team communication -.358 -.018 1.000
Covariances Full utilization of skills and talent .263 -.067 -.117
Security -.067 .226 -.006
Improvements in team communication -.117 -.006 .408
a. Dependent Variable: Challenges of Agile methods

Collinearity Diagnosticsa
Model Dimension Eigenvalue Condition Index Variance Proportions
(Constant) Security Improvements in team communication
1 1 3.843 1.000 .00 .00 .01
2 .082 6.850 .03 .18 .79
3 .046 9.130 .03 .20 .14
4 .029 11.608 .94 .61 .06
a. Dependent Variable: Challenges of Agile methods
4.3 Summary
In this section, various models has been designed to show the benefits being achieved through adoption of agile in business organizations. The analysis of the data against the presented hypotheses shows that there is interrelationship between the independent and dependent variables. It means that the hypotheses being developed against the objectives of this research are true and there are both benefits as well as challenges associated with adoption of agile methodology.
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Chapter 5- Discussion
5.1 Introduction
In this section, the discussion are carried out on the analysis that has been done previously using the gathered data to validate the objective behind this research. From the previous researches and studies it has been identified that there are various ways in which the organizations are being benefited by using agile methodology. Hence, the results from this research are presented in this section in details so that the purpose behind this research can be fulfilled. The discussions being carried out in this section will help to understand whether the hypotheses being developed in the previous section are in line with the objectives of this research. This section provides a brief reflection on the benefits and challenges associated with adopting agile methodology in business organizations.
5.2 Discussion
The analysis of data in terms of the benefits and challenges associated with the adoption of agile in the organization shows that there is a strong relationship between the dependent and independent variables. This research is oriented towards two major areas that is benefits and challenges associated with agile technology hence, the discussions are presented mainly on the two hypothesis that is whether there is any challenge or benefit associated with adoption of agile. The multiple regression analysis has been done for testing the below mentioned hypothesis:
Null Hypothesis (H0): The benefits and challenges associated with agile techniques have no significant impact on the adoption of agile in organizations;
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The benefits and challenges associated with agile techniques have significant impact on the adoption of agile in organizations;

Regression Statistics
The analysis being presented in the previous chapter shows that there is significant impact of the benefits and challenges associated with agile techniques on the adoption of agile in organizations. The value of multiple correlations co-efficient is 0.835293. The value shows that there is correlation in between the variables and those are positively valued. Hence, it can be said that the dependent variable is positively linked with adoption of agile in organization that is the dependent variable. On the other hand, the computed statistic that falls in the range from -1 to +1 does not show any statistical significance of the variable correlation. It can be presented that the outcome of the proposed regression line comprises the approximated coefficients, coefficients’ standard error, computed t statistic, corresponding p value and bounds of 95% of confidence intervals. The relationship between dependent variables and independent variables are positively linked. The coefficient of determination that is R square is valued at 0.856293 that is 85%. It can be concluded that almost 85% of variation which is related with the value of dependent variable is analysed by the variable of independent in order to come to a feasible point. The adjusted R square which is considered as measure of explanatory power is valued at 0.794352. The interesting point that relates with this statics is that it neither considered as a percentage such as R square nor as a significance test that is F statistics. Therefore, it can be represented that adjusted R square are not generally explained. The last factor that is standard error of the regression is valued at 0.653258. The value indicates the variation estimate in relation to the adoption of agile techniques that is dependent variables in context to the benefits and challenges associated with agile techniques.
Estimated regression line
It can be presented that the outcome of the proposed regression line comprises the approximated coefficients, coefficients’ standard error, computed t statistic, corresponding p value and bounds of 95% of confidence intervals. The relationship between dependent variables and independent variables are positively linked. On the other hand, challenges is negatively linked whereas benefits is also positively placed. The adoption of agile techniques is at 0.653258 also positively correlated with the dependent variables. Therefore total intercept under coefficients is computed to 18.53904. On the other hand, intercept under lower 95% confidence level is at 8.073580965 whereas under upper 95% confidence level is valued to 30.0145. Thus, it can be concluded that there is huge gap between the confidence intervals. Therefore, it can be analysed that challenges has an impact on the adoption of agile techniques in organizations. The benefits of agile techniques has a positive connection with the Delivery of valuable software, Changes in organization, Competitive advantage.
The P value that is connected with the estimated value of F statistic can be comprehensively beyond the computed value. For instance, if comparison is made of the value computed on the basis of 5% then the null hypothesis can be rejected. Finally, as the p value is less than 0.05; hence, it can be said that the null hypothesis is rejected here. Therefore, it can be said that the Delivery of valuable software, Changes in organization, Competitive advantage have significant impact on the adoption of agile techniques in organizations.
5.3 Summary
From the overall discussions, it can be concluded that the agile methodology provides various benefits to the organization and helps to improve their business performance. The adoption of agile methodology helps to maintain good relationship with customers by delivering quality products and at the desired time. The quality of outcomes being achieved through adoption of agile methods and techniques are higher than expected that is why it is being widely used by the organizations. The agile methodology also helps the organization to gain competitive advantage over rivals in the market. This method is suitable for executing both large as well as small projects so that the desired outcomes could be achieved easily. It has also been identified that the agile method helps to improve the communications between team members so that there is no lack or gap in flow of information during the execution of a project. This method provides flexibility to the organizations such that they are able to maintain their standards while delivering products to the customers.
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Chapter 6-Critical review
Objective 1: To examine the benefits that can be gained by adopting the agile project management methodology.
It is found that by using SPSS software, it is analyzed that proper benefit can be achieved by the organizations by using the agile project management methodology. It is identified from the research that the benefits that are achieved by adopting the agile methodology mainly includes predictable delivery, transparency, predictable cost, improves quality as well as assists in providing proper satisfaction to the customers of the organization. It is stated by Ariza, Mozo and Quintero (2018) that by defining as well as elaborating the requirements of the project, the team members who are involved within the project can be able to know about the project properly. With the help of this methodology, it is analyzed that the control on the project increases (Choy, 2014). Moreover, the risks which are associated with the project can be resolved by taking proper important steps. It is analyzed that by generating revenue by the self-funding projects generally helps in allowing the organizations to pay lite up-front expense however any changes that are needed within the project can be allowed with the help of the agile project methods. Thus, it is analyzed after data analyses that there are number of benefits of adopting agile methodology and as per the data analysis, the first objective of the project is met.
Objective 2: To recognize the challenges that is faced due to the adoption of agile methodology
By undertaking proper data analysis, it is analyzed that there are number of challenges of adopting agile and the challenges or benefits of the agile project methodology mainly depends on the suitability of this methodology with the project. It is analyzed that the challenges that some project faces due to the adoption of agile project methodology mainly includes more time commitment, greater demand from the project developers, lack of documentation as well as problems due to off track of the project. It is found that when it is needed to develop software deliverables, it is quite necessary to assess the needed effort before the software development life cycle (Conforto et al., 2014). It is found that due to lack of proper emphasis on the design as well as documentation of the project, the project manager faces difficulty in using this project methodology during that situation. It is found that as the requirement for the software are not properly clarified as documentation by using methodology is not given. This generally reflects that the team members who generally joins the team does not requires to know the details about the system functionalities and about the procedure, how it performs and therefore it generally creates misunderstanding as well as difficulties (Dang and Pheng, 2015). Moreover, by it is analyzed that this method generally needs very much little planning and thus the consumer requires to assume the changes quite effectively. It is analyzed that then if the consumers feedback is not properly provided then a developer might face issues due to wrong areas of development. Thus it is found that it generally has the potential to face scope creep.
Objective 3: To analyze whether the adoption of agile is advantageous for the projects
The data analysis that is done within the SPSSS software, reveals that the adoption of agile methodology is advantageous or not is mainly dependent on the organization which is using the methodology (Elsayed et al., 2015).It is found that agile project management methodology is mainly suitable for the projects that have iterative nature.the project that have skilled team can use agile project management methodology as agile methodology assists in delivering the needed changes in a very much fast as well as efficient manner and thus it is very much imperative to skilled team (Fletcher, 2017). Whereas, it is found that the use of agile project methodology is not suitable for the projects that have lack of leadership and generally blames the process.If the team generally fails to deliver what is generally committed for iterations then the agile project management can collapse. Thus, from the data analysis, it is reflected that the agile project management methodology is mainly suitable for the project that have experienced project team who can be able to take the responsibility of managing the work of the project effectively. Thus, from the data analysis, it is reflected that the third objective is successfully achieved.
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Chapter 7-Conclusion
7.1. Conclusion
It can be concluded that that there are number of benefits as well as challenges of adopting agile project management methodology and the benefits and the challenges of the agile methodology mainly depends the suitability of the methodology with the project. In order to analyze the benefits and challenges of adopting agile methodology, primary data analysis is done by using SPSS software. It is reflected that the benefits as well as challenges that are generally achieved mainly depends on the project on which it is adopted. It is found that the agile project management methodology can be used in the project that generally depends on the interactive philosophy as well as active user involvement nod have proper skilled team members. Use of agile in such sceneries are quite advnatgeous assist in providing number of benefits including predictable delivery, transparency, predictable cost as well as improved quality. However, it is reflected that if the agile project management methodology is used within the project that have lack of leadership and generally blames the process then the project will face number of challenges including more time commitment, greater demand from the project developers, lack of documentation as well as problems due to off track of the project. Thus, it is analyzed that all the objectives of the research paper are achieved successfully and the organization needs to adopt the agile project methodology as per their demands and on depending on the needs of the project.
7.2 Recommendations
There are number of recommendations provided which are very much helpful for adopting the agile project management methodology. The recommendations are elaborated below:
Testing integration with development lifecycle: As the end goal of any of the project activity is to undertake testing of software quality as well as applications. It is found that the project testing team generally plays a great role in continuously checking the quality of the software that is generally used. Integration of testing within the core development assist in identification of risk quality as well as vulnerabilities that are associated with the project in initial stage.
Encouraging the team members to communicate properly: It is very much necessary to encourage the project team members so that they can communicate successfully among themselves. It is found that rapid collaboration as well as communication between the team members are considered to be important or effectively use agile project management methodology.
Making proper documentation: It is found that strong communication mechanism is needed at each and every level with the fast-paced nature of testing in an agile environment. It is found that proper documentation is needed for adopting agile project management methodology for accelerating the entire testing procedure effectively so that the quality issues can be managed properly. It is necessary to provide proper guidelines to the team members so that level of documentation and coding is incorporated successfully.

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