A QR code is a two-dimensional code (2D code, matrix code), which means that it does not contain a single dimension (for example, horizontal from left to right like the strepies present on the products, for example your grocery store ), Secondly. dimension (vertical and horizontal). 17 The acronym QR is an abbreviation of -Quick Response. QR codes are often referred to as 2D barcodes. However, this notation is incorrect because it means a two-dimensional code consisting of bars, although a QR code consists of pixels (called modules) instead of bars.
The QR code was invented by the automotive industry. 19 Toyota has asked its supplier Denso Wave to develop a barcode to identify components safely and easily. QR generators were originally used in industrial applications. Therefore, they must be easy to print in shape and size, as well as legible when partially destroyed or dirty. 20 Like other codes, the QR code symbol can be captured with imaging devices such as a camera and processed digitally. Software prepares the captured image data until it can be processed according to a QR code algorithm by default so that the content of the QR code can be read.
Due to the excellent error correction (it can even be read if 30% of the surface is destroyed) and the large memory capacity (compared to other barcodes), the QR code also gained some field outside the automotive sector. Modern phones are powerful enough to handle QR code reading software and generally provide a camera. This combination offers many possibilities for using the QR code to easily transfer data without affecting the new communication center of the population, the smartphone. As a result, the widespread use of QR codes has become possible with the recent smartphone boom and the growing spread of mobile internet 21.
A QR code is essentially an improved version of the average bar code. However, they can contain about 350 times the amount of information that can be stored on a typical one-dimensional bar code. 22 Since QR codes can store information in two directions, they are considered a type of matrix or a 2D code. QR codes have been used for many years in other countries, such as Japan, but are now popular only in the United States. They are likely to spread around the world in the next few years. 16 The summary below gives an idea of the timeline for creating the code.
1952 – The first patent is issued to Joseph Woodland for a barcode device
Bernard Silver. However, it was originally a circular bar code whose use was rare.
1966 – The bar code indicates its first commercial use, although the lack of operating standards poses problems.
1970 – The Universal Grocery Identification Code (or UGPIC) is created to standardize the industry. The Monarch Marking Company manufactures the first barcode reading equipment for retail sale.
1973 – Over the next few years, the UGPIC has been transformed into the UPC code that we all know today.
1974 – The first UPC scanner is installed in a supermarket in Ohio.
1981 – The US Department of Defense begins using the code to identify all items made for the military.
1986 – Companies like FedEx started using barcodes and manual manipulators to track parcels.
1988 – Intermec Corporation creates the first 2D barcode.
1994 – The QR code was invented by the company Denso Wave to follow the manufacturing process of the vehicle.
2000 – The first smartphone is released by Ericsson, the R380. At this point, its capabilities are much more limited than those of smartphones.
2001 – Palm releases the first phone capable of surfing the Web.
2010 – The first QR code scanners and browser applications are marketed for various smartphone platforms in the United States.
2011 – QR codes are starting to feature prominently in the US as a result of several major campaigns such as Best Buy and Macy’s.
As you can see, the timeline for using QR codes has really started. Who knows where they will lead us in the next ten years. At this point, we can only wait and see. However, it is clear that they become more and more important each year. Therefore, they can be the key to successfully identifying the validity of the driver’s license. 20
There are 40 different versions of QR codes with different data capabilities. 24 Version 1 includes 21 X 21 modules, 133 of which can be used to store coded data. Version 40, which is the largest QR code, contains 23,648 modules that can be used to store data. This means that it can contain 4296 alphanumeric characters.
(1) Search pattern: The three identical structures found in the upper and lower left corners allow the decoding software to recognize the QR code and determine the correct orientation. These models also allow a fast reading of the code on 360 degrees (omnidirectional). These structures consist of a black block of 3 x 3 surrounded by white modules surrounded by black modules. 25
(2) Separations: The white separators surrounding the Finder patterns are one pixel wide and make it easy to distinguish patterns.
(3) Time sequence: A sequence of black and white modules that help the decoding software determine the width of a single module.
(4) Guideline Template: This template allows the QR code reader to warp when the code is folded or folded. The alignment pattern appears on versions 2 and above and the number of alignment patterns used depends on the version chosen in the encoding.
(5) Format information: This section contains 15 bits and contains the error correction rate and the selected mask pattern of the QR code. The level of error correction can be identified from the first two modules of the time model. The format information will only be read when the QR code is decoded.
(5) Data: Once the data has been converted to Reed-Solomon encoded data bits, they are stored in 8-bit portions (codewords) in the data section.
(6) Error correction: The data code words are used to generate the error correction code (EG) words stored in the error correction section.
(8) Remaining Bits: This section contains empty bits if the data bits or error correction bits can not be divided into 8-bit code words with no remainder.
QR codes can encode different types of data, such as numeric, alphanumeric, binary, kanji, or control codes. Another great advantage of QR codes is that they are readable from different angles and that data can be decoded successfully even if the code is partially dirty or damaged. This is due to the error correction associated with QR codes 26. There are four different levels of error correction; Low (L), Medium (M), Quartile (Q) and High (H) can support 7%, 15%, 25% and 30% respectively. The level of error correction associated with the type of coded data also affects the ability of the QR code. Higher error correction levels increase the percentage of codewords used for error correction, thereby decreasing the amount of data that can possibly be stored in a code. This is why the level of error correction L is generally preferred. An additional feature of QR codes that enhances the contrast of the image, thus helping the navigation software to decode the QR code, is called masking. With masking, generated QR codes have a uniform distribution between black and white modules. The appropriate mask is automatically selected by the coding software when creating the QR code