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1.7 Learning:
Learning is the act of obtaining new, or amending and strengthening, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or priorities and may involve creating different types of information. The skill of learning is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines. It does not occur all at once, but builds upon and is molded by previous knowledge. To that end, learning may be regarded as a continuous process, rather than a collection of accurate and procedural knowledge. Learning produces changes in the human and the changes produced are relatively long-lasting.
There are various kinds of learning which are as follows
1.7.1 Non-associative learning:
It regarded as a permanent change in the strength of reply to a single stimulus due to frequent exposure to that stimulus. Changes due to such factors as sensory adaptation, fatigue, or injury do not qualify as non-associative learning.”
1.7.1.1 Sensitization
1.7.1.2 Habituation

1.7.2 Associative learning:
It is the process by which someone learns coordination between two stimuli, or a behavior and a stimulus. The two types of associative learning are classical and operant conditioning.
1. In the former, a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly presented, together with a reflex producing stimuli, until eventually the neutral stimulus produces a response on its own.
2. In operant conditioning, a certain behavior is either reinforced or punished, which alters the probability that the behavior will reoccur.
1.7.3 Enculturation:
It is the process by which community learn values and behaviors that are suitable or necessary in their adjacent culture. Parents, other adults, and peers form the individual’s understanding of these values. If successful, enculturation results in competence in the language, values and rituals of the culture. This is different from acculturation, where a person adopts the values and societal rules of a culture different from their native one.
1.7.4 Episodic learning:
It`s a change in behavior that occurs as a result of an occasion. For example, a fear of dogs that follows being bitten by a dog is episodic learning. Episodic learning is so named because events are recorded into episodic memory, which is one of the three forms of explicit learning and retrieval, along with perceptual memory and semantic memory
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1.7.5 Multimedia learning:
In this type of learning a person acquire skill by using multimedia. In this type of learning a person uses both auditory and visual stimuli to learn information. This type of learning relies on dual-coding theory.
1.7.6 Rote learning:
Is memorizing information so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. The major technique used for rote learning is learning by repetition, based on the idea that a learner can recall the material exactly (but not its meaning) if the information is repeatedly processed. Rote learning is used in diverse areas, from mathematics to music to religion. Although it has been criticized by some educators, rote learning is a necessary precursor to meaningful learning.

1.7.7 Meaningful learning:

The learned knowledge (e.g., a fact) is fully understood to the extent that it relates to other knowledge. To this end, meaningful learning differs with rote learning in which information is acquired without sense of understanding. Meaningful learning, on the other hand, implies there is a comprehensive knowledge of the context of the facts learned.

1.7.8 Informal learning:

It occurs through the experience of day-to-day situations, for example, one learns to look ahead while walking because of the danger inherent in not paying attention to where one is going. It is learning from life, during a meal at table with parents, play, discovering, etc.

1.7.9 Formal learning:
That is learning that takes place between teacher and student relationship, such as in a educational system. In formal learning, the learning or training departments set out the goals and objectives of the learning.

1.7.10 Non-formal learning:

It is organized learning outside the formal learning system. For example, learning by coming together with people with similar interests and exchanging viewpoints, in clubs or in (international) youth organizations, workshops.

1.7.11 Indirect learning:
It is the process by which people self-educate if a topic is exposed to them in a context that they already enjoy. For example, after playing a music-based video game, some people may be motivated to learn how to play a real instrument. Self-education can be improved with systematization. In natural learning, self-oriented learning training has proven an effective means for supporting independent learners with the natural phases of learning.

1.7.12 Dialogic learning:
It is a type of learning based on dialogue, in which most of the learners are involved. Learners get a chance to speak and present their views and share their ideas. Through this learning students improve their confidence because they are assigned a special task by the teacher and they are going to discuss on them.

1.7.13 Incidental learning:
This learning is not planned by the instructor or the student, but occurs as a result of another activity—an experience, observation, self-reflection, collaboration, exclusive event, or mutual routine task. This learning happens in addition to or apart from the instructor’s plans and the student’s expectations.
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1.8 Four Stages of teaching English
Before teaching English something must be very cleared in teacher’s mind. First, it is very important that teacher has clear vision about aims and objectives. To achieve these aims a teacher must put stress on these four stages. These are,
Skill to listen
Skill to Speak
Skill to Read
Skill to write

1.8.1 Skill to listen:
Listening means receiving message through ear with understanding, through practice only, teacher can make students able to use this skill. At elementary level more stressed should be paid on accuracy and less on fluency. A learner has a little opportunity to listen the spoken English.
1.8.2 Skill to Speak
Conveying the message through the words orally is called speaking. It is a productive skill. During speaking learners produce sound words and sentences in the connection of response. Often this skill is neglected in our institutions and as result, learners fail to speak properly. They feel shyness and hesitation in reaction of the message.
1.8.3 Skill to Read:
To recognize the written words or messages is known as reading skill. This skill must be very fruitful for learners, which enables them to speak as well as write. For improving this skill learner avail chance to get knowledge through, Books, Newspapers, and articles and by the use of electronic media etc.

1.8.4 Skill to write:
Through this skill a person express his ideas, feelings views with the help of words and sentences. It is geographical expression of language. It is mechanical at early stage and then creative for higher stage.
Synthesis Of four skills;
Listening and reading skills are passive, while speaking and writing are active skills. These skills are scientifically/organic links with each other, these are connected with each other. During teaching of English, a teacher uses two or more skills at the same time. A teacher of English must keep in mind and never ignore these skills at any cost.
1.9 Problems of teaching English to teacher:
It is admitted fact that English has been compulsory from primary to Degree level, we have to learn English to overcome these challenges and difficulties of this era. In these days of intense, anybody denied or ignored the importance of this language; especially in Pakistan the pass percentage of students of this language is very poor. To tackle these problems a teacher must remove all deficiencies regarding to English teaching. There are many reasons behind this and some of them are:
1) Not well trained English teachers
2) Over crowded class rooms.
3) lack of A-V-aids.
1) Not well trained teachers: A teacher must have three main qualities for his best performance.
– A required knowledge.
– A choosing of best teaching method
– An understanding of the purpose
The English teacher must take care of his vocabulary Accent, teaching style and pronunciation. This needs a lot of practice and work.
2) over crowded class rooms: Pakistan is developing country, more than 70% of the population lives in rural or remote areas, some belongs to lower class, some to middle or upper class. This situation is very complicated for English teacher to teach a language.
3) Lack of A-V-Aids: No doubt majority of our school are run without of equipment’s such as A-V-Aids and language laboratories which are necessary for teaching English. Our English teachers are not well aware of modern teaching techniques. In our government schools most of the teachers avoid using of such materials.
Qualities of an English teacher
1. A full Command/Mastery of English:
2. Avail an opportunity of professional trainings.
3. Knowledge of phonetics.
4. Much more confidence and complete mastery over subject
5. Interest in his subject
6. Awareness of the latest modern methods and techniques.
7. Prepare his topic according to lesson plan.
8. Lecture must be relevant to the topic
9. Appropriate body movements and use of gesture to make lesson very effective and fruitful.

1.10 Students Issues
1- Teacher pronunciation
2- Teaching Method
3- Medium of Teaching
4- Family Background
5- School Envoronment