1. April 3, 1948 – MARSHALL PLAN
George C. Marshall, the United States Secretary of State, called for a plan to rebuild Europe after World War II. The Marshall Plan was started to help rebuild the economy in Western Europe and to discourage them from turning to communism. The Economic Cooperation Act was passed by Congress in 1948 to help promote world peace.
2. May 1948 – FIRST ARAB-ISRAELI WAR
The UN General Assembly adopted the Partition Resolution. This would split Great Britain’s former Palestinian between the Jewish and Arab states. The Arabs didn’t approve of the deal. The United States tried to seek a middle ground by supporting the UN and encouraging the Arabs and Jews to work it out between them. But cease-fires were reached but never lasted.
3. June 24, 1948 – BERLIN AIR LIFT
The German forces put up blockades to controlled areas of Berlin. They hoped this would help West Berliners to reject their allies in the West. The Berlin Airlift began to bring food and other needed items to West Berlin by air. The Soviet forces stopped the blockade and allowed access to Western Berlin when they saw it was not working the way they had hoped.
4. June 25, 1950 – KOREAN WAR
The Republic of Korea was attacked by the Communist North Korea.
Sixteen nations sent troops to aide South Korea. China and the Soviet Union supported North Korea and The United States sent an army to support South Korea. An armistice was agreed to and brought an end to the war after three deadly years.
5. July 26, 1953 – CUBAN REVOLUTION
The Cuban Revolution was a armed revolt that Fidel Castro started to try to overthrow the government led by President Batista. Castro finally overthrew the President and took over control of Cuba. This ended the U.S. dominance over Cuba’s economy.
6. November 1, 1955 – VIETMAN WAR
The Viet Cong and North Vietnamese government wanted to reunify Vietnam. SEATO and the United States joined together with the Republic of South Vietnam to stop communist forces. The Vietnam War was the longest war in US history at that time. It was known as the only war that the US ever lost and its still a controversial topic that affects military decision today.
7. October 29, 1956 – SUEZ WAR
The Suez War starts because the Egyptian President Nasser nationalized the Seuz Canal after mounting political tension between Egypt, Britain, and France. The Israelies struck and British and French military forces joined in. British and French forces withdrew and Israel gave in to US pressure.
8. 1958 – GREAT LEAP FORWARD
The Communist Chinese Leader Mao decided to change the agricultural practices of rural China to make China more financially stable. Mao said communes would make China a self-reliant, industrialized nation. Great Leap Forward ended but not before it resulted in the most deadly mass killing of human history.
9. 1960 – Congo Civil War
The Congo Civil War started days following Belgiums granting of Congolese independence in 1960. It lasted 4 years and claimed about 100,000 lives. The first prime minister Patrice Lumumba and UN secretary was killed in a plane crash while they were trying to medicate the crisis.
10. September 1960 – OPEC
This stands for “organization of the petroleum exporting countries”, which is 14 countries brought together to keep from the oil crisis happening again. The headquarters is in Vienna. The main goal of this organization is to keep the oil prices stable and not inflating again.
11. August 13, 1961 – THE BERLIN WALL
East Germans would flee to the democratic West so the Communist East Germans built a wall that encircled West Berlin. The wall was built overnight to stop the emigration. They wanted to stop the fascists from entering East Germany and undermining the socialist state. The Berlin Wall is one of the most powerful symbols of the Cold War.
12. October 16, 1962 – CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
The Cuban Missile Crisis only lasted thirteen days and it was between the United States and the Soviet Union. It was caused because of ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey and the Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. This was the closest the Cold War has ever come to being a full-scale nuclear war. A Moscow-Washington hotline was established to reduce US and Soviet tensions for several years.
13. 1969 – Golda Meir
Meir was an Israeli teacher, statesman, politician and prime minister of Israel. She was called by some Israelis as one of the best women leaders of Israel, ever.
14. July 20, 1969 – Moon Landing
A moon landing is when a spacecraft lands on the surface of the moon. United states was the first to have a manned spacecraft land on the moon, beating the soviet union during the space race. As of that time, we were the only ones to land on the moon with a man.
15. 1971 – Bangladesh Liberation War
This event was a conflict between the nationalists of Bangladesh and the supporters of the determination movement. This war gave the people of Bangladesh rights and freedom. Most of the united nations now see them as a sovereign nation.
16. April 10,1971 – Ping Pong Diplomacy
A group of american ping pong players were the first americans allowed across the border of communist china. This happened during the very intense time of the cold war, and with this it helped ease tensions between china and america. This lead to president Nixon being able to go to china and visit there leader and country.
17. 1971 – Formation of Zaire
Zaire was at this time called the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The ruler at the time, Gen Mobutu se se Seko thought the DRC needed a more African name so he changed the name to Zaire. This would later come to pass by the ending of the rule of Mobutu Se Se Seko.
18. 1972 – SALT
The strategic arms limitation talks are arms control between the united states and the soviet union. These talks led to the anti ballistic missile treaty. The treaties limited how many of each kind of arms that both countries could have.
19. May 29, 1972 – Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev started the Brezhnev Doctrine giving the Soviet Union the right to use military force to keep the communist party in nearby socialist countries. They justified the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the rules of the Brezhnev Doctrine.
20. October 6, 1973 – Yom Kippur War
This was an attack on Israel by leaders from Egypt and Syria. They wanted to gain some land back from Israel that they had lost to them in the third Arab-Israeli war. With these surprise attacks, it showed Israel had weakness’ and could lead to more attacks like this one.
21. October 1973 – Oil crisis
The organization of Arab petroleum exporting countries started an oil embargo to all countries they thought were supporting Israel. This led to inflation in gas prices that lasted for almost a decade. This also led to a search for an alternative energy source in place of oil.
22. January 1978 – Islamic Revolution in Iran
The leader of Iran was one of the many leaders of Iran from over the 2500 years of them being lead by an anarchy. The revolution began when Ayat Allah Khomeini wanted to overthrow the anarchy and government of the time. This resulted in hostilities between the U.S. and Iran, still to this day.
23. 1979 – Margret Thatcher
Thatcher was the conservative party leader and prime minister of Britain. She was the first woman prime minister. She cut social welfare programs, cut down trade union power and privatized certain industries. She was later nicknamed the “Iron Lady”.
24. November 4, 1979 – Iran Hostage Crisis
This started when Iranian students took over the American Embassy and took 52 americans hostage for 444 days. President carter then negotiated with them giving the Iranians everything they wanted but they never budged. They finally let the Americans go when Reagan became president.
25. December 25, 1979 – Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
The soviets decided to invade Afghanistan in the middle of the cold war. They did this to stabilize the communist party of Afghanistan. America wanted to end the communist party of Afghanistan, so we decided to side with Afghanistan.
26. 1980 – Indira Gandhi
Gandhi was born in India. She became her fathers personal assistant while he was prime minister. She would later be elected president and the first female prime minister of India and second longest prime minister. She was a ruthless leader, but was later assassinated by one of her own bodyguards.
27. September 22, 1980 – Iran-Iraq War
Iraq invaded Iran, starting an armed conflict. The war was started by Saddam Hussein in September 1980. This was had hardly no good affects for either side of the war, but it led to a seize fire by the UN Resolution.
28. 1983 – Grenade Invasion
Grenade is a nation in the carribean. They had problems within their government which lead to them starting a preliminary government, and the murder of the last leader. The US attacked the island which led to us winning and making a democratic government there.
29. 1987 – First Intifada
This was a group of Israeli people who refused to work by doing boycotts, and by using rocks to attack violently. This led to a negative impact on the tourist population and it was a negative for the whole country of Israel.
30. August 11, 1988 – Al- Qaida
Al-Qaida is a radical Sunni Muslim organization that works to eliminate all western presence in Arab countries. The international terrorist network was founded by Osama Bin Laden in the late 1980s. One of the principal goals of Al-Qaida was to drive the US armed forces out of Saudi Arabia.
31. April 15, 1989 – Tiananmen Square Massacre
This was the capital of china, which is in the center of Beijing. In 1989, many Chinese students and workers protested in the square about there work and pay. The protests lasted for 6 weeks. This event resulted in a shocking amount of brutal actions by anti-protestors, which made the US put sanctions on China.
32. November 9, 1989 – Collapse of the Berlin Wall
The collapse of the Berlin wall was a mistake by the Soviets. The announcement was made a day before it was supposed to be mad, and when the announcement was made, the wall construction started immediately. Then a mob of people came to the wall and there was to many for the officers to hold back. The wall wasn’t completely taken down until 1990.
33. March 15, 1990 – Mikhail Gorbachev
Gorbachev was a soviet politician and the last leader of the Soviet Union. He graduated from Moscow State University with a law degree in 1955. That is where he became very active in the communist party. He presided over the collapse of the Soviet empire and in the process ending the Cold War.
34. December 22, 1990 – Lech Walesa
Walesa was born in Poland. He grew up to be a politician and an activist. Walesa is best known for beginning and leading of the first independent trade union solidarity. He later got the Nobel piece price for peace in 1983.
35. 1990 – Mujahedeen
These are Islamic guerilla fighters known for fighting for non-Muslim forces. They took arms from Afghanistan to fight the soviet invasion. They were local soldiers brought to help the Afghan people fight the Soviets.
36. August 2, 1990 – Persian Gulf War
The Persian Gulf war started when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August of 1990. Saddam Hussein, the Iraq leader ordered the invasion and occupation. He defied the UN security council to withdraw and the war began when the US sent in a massive air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm. The war ended on February 28, 1991. UN security council placed embargo and sanctions on Iraq and the US ground war.
37. 1991 – Apartheid
Apartheid is a system of a racial segregation and discrimination that existed in South Africa from 1948-1990s. The first apartheid law prohibited mixed marriage. It was illegal for most south African citizens to many across racial lines. The people were divided into 4 racial groups. 3.5 million nonwhite south Africans were removed from their homed and put in segregated neighborhoods. Apartheid legislation was abolished in mid-1990.
38. October3, 1993 – Black Hawk Down
The Black Hawk Down was a Task Force Ranger that was created in August of 1993. They were sent to Somalia. There were several elite special operations units from the army, air force, and navy. The assault was supposed to be over in one hour but they Somali militia and armed civilians shot down the Black Hawk helicopters. The crews of the helicopters extended the operation overnight where many were wounded and some killed.
39. April 7, 1994 – Rwandan Genocide
The Rwandan Genocide was a mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda. During a 100 day period approximately 500,000 and 1 million were killed. The Rwandan presidents plane was shot down above the Kigali airport. The RPF captured Kigali the government collapsed and RPF declared to cease fire.
40. May 10, 1994 – Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela was born July 18th, 1918. He was a political leader and president of South Africa. Mandela was the first black head of state, spending his life working to dismantle the apartheid, racism, and racial reconciliation. He was deeply respected in South Africa and referred to as the “father of the Nation”. Dying from a respiratory infection at the age of 95.
41. October 10, 1994 – Taliban
Osama Bin Laden was given sanctuary by the Taliban after the 9/11 attacks on the US. The Taliban are muslim extremist that call itself the Islamic emirate of Aghanistan that is currently waging war within the county.
42. July 11, 1995 – Balkan Genocide
The Genocide ethnic cleansing campaign was against Muslim Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats and was carried out by Bosnian Serbs. The campaign included many cruel things against the people, property, and places of worship. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic and president of the republic SRPSKA was found guilty of Genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. They were sentenced to 40 years in prison.
43. 1999 – ISIS
The Islamic State is one of the most dangerous jihadist groups and it stands with al- Qaeda. The al-Qaeda has disavowed ISIS but it has still one of the main jihadist groups fighting government forces in Syria and Iraq.
44. September 11, 2001 – 9-11
On September 11, 2001 4 airplanes were hijacked by Islamist extromists. They flew one into the Pentagon, 2 into the World trade center in New York City and 1 was crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. 2,997 victims were killed in the terrorist attacks including 412 emergency workers in NYC.
45. September 11, 2001 – Global war on Terror
The United states started a military campaign after the 9/11 attacks on the US to help fight terrorism called the Global War on Terrorism. President Bush said this was a war against all those who seek to export terror, and a war against those governments that support or shelter them.
46. February 26, 2003 – Darfur Crisis
The Sudan Liberation movement and the Justice and Equality movement rebel groups acused the government of sudan of opperssig Darfur’s non-arab population, so they attacked them. In return the government carried out a campaign of the ethic cleansing against Darfur’s non-arabs. This ended in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and an indictment of Sudans President.
47. March 20, 2003 – Operation Iraqi Freedom
A military conflict in Iraq started in 2003 when the U.S. forces resulted in overthrowing Saddam Hussein’s regime. The operation removed Saddam Hussein from power and stopped his ability to develop weapons of mass destruction. On December 18,2011 the last US troops in Iraq cross the border in Kuwait.
48. 2008 – Gaza War
The Gaza war only lasted 3 week between the Palestinians in the Gaza strip and Israel. Israel wanted to stop the Palestinian rocket fire and the smuggling of weapons into the Gaza strip. TUN special mission gave a report that accused both Palestinian militants and the IDF of war crimes and maybe crimes against humanity. The report later said they did not believe that Israel has intentionally targeted civilians in Gaza.
49. December 18, 2010 – Arab Spring
Arab Spring is also referred to as Arab Revolutions. It was a wave of demonstrations protests, riots, foreign interventions, and Civil Wars. Some violent, some non-violent, that took place I the North Africa in the middle east.
50. May 25, 2018 – saddest event of them all
This day marks a new chapter of Mr. Dameron’s life. Even though you are one of the best teachers I have ever had, I understand your reasoning of why you have to leave. All of us students will miss you, but we all hope you do good at your next job and maybe come back to teaching one day. Good luck and thank you for all the things you have taught me.